Warehouse factory quartz glass and articles thereof
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Aims of the study were the identification of the main glass compositions and their contextualisation in Late-Antique groups; the identification of provenance of raw glass, and, consequently, of commercial routes; the extent, if any, of recycling glass cullet, as an alternative to the import of fresh raw glass; the identification of possible connections between archaeological typology and glass chemical composition.
Sr and Nd isotopic analysis confirmed that the composition of the three glasses derive from coastal sands of the Syro-Palestinian and Egyptian shore, with a slight shift in comparison to the published data. Little evidence of recycling was identified in the assemblage. In the 5 th century, a secondary glass workshop devoted to the shaping of glass vessels starting from raw glass chunks and, possibly, glass cullet, was active in the area of the harbour.
Comparisons between Classe and Aquileia show that during the Late Antiquity these sites seem to be supplied of raw glass by the same trade routes. In addition, some connections between types and chemical compositions were highlighted. The present study is part of a wider research project about glass production, trade and consumption in the North Adriatic Italy, covering the time interval between the Early Iron Age and the Middle Ages.
This area is particularly interesting not only because it is located between Eastern Mediterranean and continental Europe but also because, especially during the Late Antiquity, the relevance of Adriatic trade routes connecting continental Europe with the Levant increases, due to the great political changes that followed the fall of the Roman Empire and the consequent increasing key role played by the Eastern Mediterranean area.
Classe - geographical position and topography of the site. During the recent excavations of the harbour area of Classe, a large amount of glass was recovered and evidence of glass working was identified [ 1 , 2 ]. Although the archaeological study of the glass allows us to exclude primary production in the area under investigation and seems to support the centralised production model, in which raw glass is produced in a few primary production location and then exported to secondary workshops for vessel shaping [ 3 - 5 ], the present study, combining archaeological and archaeometric data, aims to answer various questions still open.
These are mainly related to: 1 identification of the main glass compositions worked in Classe and their contextualisation in Late-Antique groups, reported in the literature until now; 2 identification of provenance of raw glass worked in Classe, and, consequently, of the glass commercial routes; 3 extent, if any, of practice of recycling glass cullet, as an alternative to the import of fresh raw glass; 4 identification of eventual correlations between archaeological types and glass chemical composition.
Classe was located on the Adriatic Sea and connected to the city of Ravenna by a canal system. The topography of the port area suggests that it was planned since its origins with streets, a drainage system and at least eighteen buildings, probably warehouses, mainly devoted to the storage of foodstuff coming from East Mediterranean and Carthage [ 6 ]. In some cases the excavations of the warehouses brought to light also raw materials, such as iron slabs and, in one case, slags and traces of iron forging were found close to one of the warehouses dated to the 5 th century.
The productive vocation of the port area is also confirmed by the glassworking evidence excavated in Classe between and The main context for glassworking was identified inside one of the warehouses, named Building 6, built at the beginning of the 5 th century.
Around the small circular kiln a massive concentration of glass fragments and glassworking wastes was found in the excavation of [ 2 ]. So far, the most likely hypothesis is that the small kiln, discovered in the s and initially ascribed to ceramic production, can now be recognized as a glass-furnace.
The archaeological data allow us to state that the main glassworking activity took place in Classe in the 5 th century. Another interesting glass assemblage was excavated in a further context of the port area, here named US, and constituted by a small dump dated between the end of the 5 th and the beginning of the 6 th century AD. This dump is also particularly relevant because of its location, close to the remarkable warehouse named Building 17 [ 7 , 8 ]. The importance of the Building 17, abandoned after a fire at the end of the 5 th century, is related to its content, constituted by Tunisian amphorae, lamps and fine wares.
In the small context US a second group of vessels and wastes was excavated. Differing from Building 6, where the glass assemblage is related to productive activity in Classe, the excavation of the dump US can give interesting information about glass consumption in the area under investigation. The cross-analysis of both contexts may provide a complete view of the glass life-cycle in Classe.
All the identifiable materials are dated to the 5 th - 8 th century AD; more represented are those forms dated between the 5 th and 6 th centuries, coinciding with the period of greatest use of the warehouse. Among the discoveries of Building 6, beakers are the most attested form, particularly types Isings 96, Isings with the two variants b - with rounded rim - and c - with unfinished rim , Isings and Isings were identified.
Among the drinking vessels, a high percentage of goblets Isings are recorded, a common situation found within the most important sites of the Mediterranean area in the Late Antiquity [ 9 - 15 ]. From the US excavation, a small number of glassworking indicators 16 and some fragments of glass vessels were recovered.
The dating of all the identified forms is confirmed by stratigraphic data. In both the archaeological context under investigation, beakers and goblets are the most common types found. A selection of beakers and goblets from the two contexts was devoted to archaeometric analysis.
In order to gain information about the activity of the glass atelier , a selection of working indicators was also here analysed. The quality of the glass is generally low in all the analysed vessels: air bubbles, blowing traces and mainly unintentional colour generally with various shade of green seem to support the hypothesis of a not very refined productions.
Both the contexts show a high degree of fragmentation of the artefacts; in the case of Building 6, this can be due to cullet collection for recycling purpose; in the case of the US, the high fragmentation of this part of assemblage is consistent with the function of the context, that is meant to host waste.
Some of the samples were previously analysed and published [ 18 , 19 ] and were here reconsidered for the comparative purposes of this work. In order to guarantee the full comparability among the samples and to reduce the influence of a systematic error, chemical analyses were newly performed under the same analytical conditions on all the fragments.
In order to avoid contamination, all the fragments were carefully cleaned and the outer layers were removed by a diamond drill. For EPMA analysis, small fragment of each sample were cut perpendicularly to the surface with a diamond-coated saw and embedded in epoxy resin blocks.
The powders were then mixed with Li 2 B 4 O 7 in a ratio and beads were prepared. OM observations were carried out under stereoscopic vision on the whole fragment with a Zeiss Stemi C microscope and, under reflected light, on polished sections with a Nikon Eclipse ME, both supplied by the Department of Geosciences, University of Padova Italy. These observations revealed the substantial homogeneity of all samples under investigation, including all the glassworking wastes.
The bulk chemical composition of the smaller samples was determined by EPMA on polished sections. The electron probe used for quantitative micro-analysis is a Cameca SX50, equipped with four wavelength-dispersive spectrometers. An average of 6 random analytical points was performed on each sample, and mean and standard deviation were calculated on specific compositional groups. Details of analytical conditions and detection limits for EPMA are reported in [ 20 ].
Precision of EPMA analysis was between 0. XRF precision was better than 0. Detailed information about precision and accuracy are reported in [ 21 ]. Major elements are expressed in weight percent of the corresponding oxide, while the trace elements are reported in parts per million ppm. In the case of EPMA measurements, mean values are only reported in the tables because the standard deviation is always below 1.
The chemical data obtained were elaborated with statistical multivariate methods. In order to identify homogeneous compositional groups, hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted with Minitab15 software, using a Ward linkage algorithm and squared Euclidean distance after standardization, taking into account the major elements and excluding the possible intentional colouring and decolouring agents Sb, Mn.
In order to trace the provenance of the raw materials employed for the primary production of the glass, 12 samples representing the three compositional groups were selected for isotopic analysis. To separate Sr and Nd from the glass matrix, a chromatographic separation was carried out in a class 10 clean lab at Ghent University Belgium following the methods reported in [ 22 ] and references therein. The detailed procedure for Nd isolation, and the full analytical conditions for the elemental analysis and the isotopic ratio determination are reported in [ 22 ].
All the analysed samples are silica-soda-lime glasses, with SiO 2 ranging between The low concentrations of K 2 O and MgO, generally below 1. Group CL1, that comprises 13 vessel fragments and 13 working indicators, is characterised by high levels of Fe 2 O 3 2. On the basis of the iron content, group CL1 can be subdivided into three subgroups: CL1a composed of 9 samples 3 vessels and 6 glassworking wastes comprehensive of 1 raw chunk , with a very high Fe 2 O 3 content 3.
Group CL2, composed of 4 wastes and 2 vessel fragments, is characterized by high CaO 9. In addition, the relatively elevate content of potash 1. Group CL3, that includes 11 vessel fragment and 14 glassworking wastes comprehensive of 3 raw chunks, can be distinguished from the CL1 and CL2 groups by the low alumina 1. It is interesting to note that both groups CL1 and CL3 include raw chunks, glassworking wastes and objects of comparable compositions while group CL2, which comprises 6 samples only, includes objects and two glassworking wastes but no raw chuck.
The compositional groups identified in Classe were compared with major compositional glass groups dated from the Roman to the Medieval period, as identified in the literature, in order to contextualise the production technologies of this glass assemblage in a wider cultural and geographical framework.
Binary plots. Compositional ranges of reference literature groups are reported in dotted line. Although primary production sites directly linked with the HIMT composition have not been discovered yet, raw glass characterised by high levels of iron, aluminium, titanium and manganese oxides is thought to have been produced in Egypt between the 4 th and the 8 th centuries [ 25 , 31 , 32 ].
However, it should be underlined here that, even though some studies [ 31 ] restrict HIMT definition to glass samples that show a positive correlation between iron and alumina, titania and manganese, no correlation has been identified within the HIMT assemblage of Classe.
Together with the uncertainty on its production region, HIMT glass has not been yet well defined compositionally [ 30 ]. Group 1 starts to be extensively traded along the Mediterranean shores from the beginning of the 5 th century and its circulation seems to stop at the beginning of the 6 th and this chronological range is fully consistent with the dating of the site of Classe.
Its high iron content may be also due to colouring agents intentionally added, imparting its blue colour. Even though it is not possible at the moment to formulate further hypotheses about the specific fragment from Classe, the chronology of the excavations of Classe and Dichin, both dated to the 5 th -6 th century, allows us to suggest the possibility that sample D26 could be an HIT glass.
Minor and trace elements can provide further useful information to discriminate the quality of sands employed in primary production and to evaluate the level of recycling. HIMT samples coming from Classe groups CL1a and CL1b , show generally low but not negligible levels of the above elements, when detectable, suggesting limited recycling, with the exception of the deeply coloured vessels the deep green D1 and the blue D Levantine 1 glass was traded along the Mediterranean between the end of the 4 th and 7 th century AD.
Primary production centres for Levantine 1 raw glass were excavated at Jalame [ 27 ], Dor [ 36 ] and Apollonia-Arsuf, [ 4 ] all in the Syro-Palestinian area. This composition is dated between the end of the 5 th century and the beginning of the 6 th century AD and even if sand deposits and primary working sites have not been identified yet, they are thought to be in the Levantine coast.
In this context, it should be underlined here that, although the compositional groups identified are the same in Classe and Aquileia, the relative proportions are quite different between two sites. On the contrary, the lack of glassworking wastes in Aquileia may easily relate to the different functions of the excavated areas, a productive complex in the case of Classe and a domus in the case of Aquileia.
Conversely, beakers Isings seem to be produced in all the three compositional groups. It may be hypothesised that Levantine 1 glass was not available for workshops dedicated to the shaping of Isings 96 and Ising in Classe.
In addition, comparisons among the common types found in Aquileia and Classe i. Beakers Ising are made in glass belonging to all the three compositional groups identified in both sites i. Recent studies have demonstrated the great potential of isotopic analysis for glass provenance study in the case of Roman, Late Antique and Byzantine glass [ 22 , 37 - 40 ]. Due to the negligible effect of thermic treatments on the isotopic ratios, these analyses represent a useful tool to link a glass object to the source of raw materials employed in primary production.
In particular, Sr and Nd isotopic ratios can help locating the source of sand supply used for glass production. Sr is, in fact, expected to be introduced in the glass mainly from the carbonatic fraction of the sand.
Sea shells are made of aragonite, while continental limestone is mainly constituted of calcite. In sands with a higher value the isotopic ratio is due to both sea shells and non-quartz silicatic minerals.
Therefore Roman, Late Antique and Byzantine glass, produced with coastal sand rich in sea shells, is expected to have a Sr isotopic ratio similar to 0. Nd is another useful provenance marker for ancient glass. In Roman, Hellenistic and Byzantine glass, Nd is introduced by the heavy, non-quartz, silicatic fraction of the sand [ 39 ] and being a rare earth element REE , contamination from other sources and recycling can be excluded [ 41 ].
The same values are therefore expected for primary glasses coming from this area, such as HIMT and Levantine 1. To trace the provenance of the raw materials employed for the primary production of the glass excavated in Classe, analysis of the isotopic ratios for Sr and Nd was performed on 12 samples selected on the basis of the following criteria: 1 suitable dimension of the fragment; 2 availability of trace element data; 3 low levels of recycling indicators. The use of limestone-rich sand for the primary production of these two groups can be excluded, as the high content of Sr is, without any doubt, consistent with the use of aragonitic marine shells as a source of CaO.
The smaller isotopic ratio found in CL1 samples can therefore be indicative of the use, in this specific group, of an impure coastal sand rich in non-carbonatic, Sr-bearing silicatic minerals. Isotopic ratios of the analysed samples.
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Aims of the study were the identification of the main glass compositions and their contextualisation in Late-Antique groups; the identification of provenance of raw glass, and, consequently, of commercial routes; the extent, if any, of recycling glass cullet, as an alternative to the import of fresh raw glass; the identification of possible connections between archaeological typology and glass chemical composition. Sr and Nd isotopic analysis confirmed that the composition of the three glasses derive from coastal sands of the Syro-Palestinian and Egyptian shore, with a slight shift in comparison to the published data. Little evidence of recycling was identified in the assemblage. In the 5 th century, a secondary glass workshop devoted to the shaping of glass vessels starting from raw glass chunks and, possibly, glass cullet, was active in the area of the harbour. Comparisons between Classe and Aquileia show that during the Late Antiquity these sites seem to be supplied of raw glass by the same trade routes.
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Это умиротворяющее прикосновение вывело Сьюзан из оцепенения. Внезапно она вспомнила, зачем искала Стратмора, и повернулась к. - Коммандер. Северная Дакота - это Грег Хейл.
ГЛАВА 31 Сьюзан вернулась в Третий узел. После разговора со Стратмором она начала беспокоиться о безопасности Дэвида, а ее воображение рисовало страшные картины. - Ну, - послышался голос Хейла, склонившегося над своим компьютером, - и чего же хотел Стратмор. Провести романтический вечер в обществе своего главного криптографа. Сьюзан проигнорировала его вопрос и села за свой терминал. Ввела личный код, и экран тотчас ожил, показав, что Следопыт работает, хотя и не дал пока никакой информации о Северной Дакоте.
Если этот шифр станет общедоступным, - прошептала она, - криптография превратится в мертвую науку. Стратмор кивнул: - Это наименьшая из наших проблем. - Не можем ли мы подкупить Танкадо.
Я знаю, он нас ненавидит, но что, если предложить ему несколько миллионов долларов. Убедить не выпускать этот шифр из рук. Стратмор рассмеялся: - Несколько миллионов.
Усадить человека моих лет на мотоцикл. Просто позор. - Могу я для вас что-нибудь сделать. Клушар задумался, польщенный оказанным вниманием.
Когда она вошла, глаза немца чуть не вывалились из орбит. На ней была черная ночная рубашка; загорелая, орехового оттенка кожа светилась в мягком свете ночника, соски призывно выделялись под тонкой прозрачной тканью. - Komm doch hierher, - сказал немец сдавленным голосом, сбрасывая с себя пижаму и поворачиваясь на спину.
Как только Танкадо узнает о том, что вы сделали, он опубликует свою копию, и рынок рухнет. - Вы получите оба экземпляра, - прозвучал голос. - Мой и мистера Танкадо. Нуматака закрыл трубку ладонью и громко засмеялся.
- Эксклюзивные права у вас. Это я гарантирую.
Сьюзан ответила ему теплой улыбкой. Ее всегда поражало, что даже в преддверии катастрофы Стратмор умел сохранять выдержку и спокойствие.
Она была убеждена, что именно это качество определило всю его карьеру и вознесло на высшие этажи власти. Уже направляясь к двери, Сьюзан внимательно посмотрела на ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Она все еще не могла свыкнуться с мыслью о шифре, не поддающемся взлому.
Пользователь имел возможность создать любую гипотетическую ситуацию, и Мозговой штурм предсказывал, как эта ситуация повлияет на среду. Коммандер относился к этой программе с религиозным трепетом, но использовал ее не в политических целях: она служила ему для расчета времени, оценки информации и схематического отображения ситуации, выработки сложных стратегических решений и своевременного выявления слабых мест.
Сьюзан не оставляло подозрение, что в компьютере шефа кроется нечто, чему в один прекрасный день суждено изменить весь мир. Да, я была с ним слишком сурова, - подумала Сьюзан.
Ее мысли были прерваны внезапным звуковым сигналом входной двери Третьего узла.
Выпустите. Кардинал Хуэрра послушно кивнул. Дьявол ворвался в святилище в поисках выхода из Божьего дома, так пусть он уйдет, и как можно скорее.