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- Global trends in the crop protection industry
- WHAT DO WE DO
- Importance of Crop Protection Products in Indian Agriculture
- Crop protection chemicals
- Interpretation of China’s Regulatory Requirements on Public Health Pesticides
- Agro Chemicals Products
- Plant protection products registration and its role in the new agricultural model
- Importance of Crop Protection Products in Indian Agriculture
Global trends in the crop protection industry
The need for safe and environmentally-friendly crop protection chemicals has never been greater. Crop yields would be around half their current levels without the use of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. A typical research programme may take five years, and this is followed by a development period of around eight years, during which time the chemical will be rigorously tested to ensure that it meets the highest standards of safety - to farmers, consumers and in the environment.
In addition, the route by which the compound will be prepared on a multi-tonne scale is determined during this development period. But are these chemicals the answer to food sustainability and what is the outlook for the development of new products? Crop protection chemicals provide farmers with a cost-effective way of improving the yield and the quality of their crops.
They also make harvesting more straightforward and maintain consistent yields from year to year. The main classes of crop protection chemicals are herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. Selective herbicides, for example, control the growth of weeds which would otherwise grow among a crop, competing with it for water, nutrients and sunlight. Without crop protection chemicals agriculture would be less efficient. Research done over the past 20 years, mainly by Dr Erich-Christian Oerke and his colleagues at the University of Bonn in Germany, has shown that overall crop yields would be around half their current levels without the use of crop protection products.
In certain crops, for example cotton, which can be spoilt by a host of different insects and competing weeds, the losses can be as high as 80 per cent. Research has also been done by other groups to compare yields obtained from crops grown organically, where the use of crop protection products is minimised.
Generally no synthetic crop protection chemicals are used, though minerals, such as copper salts, and natural chemicals, such as the insecticide rotenone found in the roots of several plants, may be. The findings suggest that organic yields are usually well below those achieved when crop protection chemicals are used, typically 30 per cent lower for wheat and barley, and 40 per cent lower for potatoes. Moreover entire crops have been lost without the use of crop protection chemicals.
Potatoes and vines are examples of particularly high-risk crops, growing in parts of the world where weather conditions can at times be conducive to fungal epidemics. The devastation of entire crops is of major concern, both to farmers, who lose income, and to consumers, who face rising supermarket prices. Inorganic compounds, such as arsenic and mercury salts, were used in agriculture until the 19th century to control insects and fungi, respectively.
Crop protection chemistry has come a long way since then. Modern products are designed to be highly selective in their action to minimise the impact on non-target organisms. Selective activity enables, for example, the control of fungi growing on plants without damaging the plants themselves; or the control of a range of weed species without damaging the crop plants among which the weeds are growing.
An essential aspect of the selectivity of a crop protection chemical is that it does not affect the consumer or the environment. Each of these effects may stem from specificity at the enzyme or receptor level, or from selective metabolism.
There has also been a trend towards the use of lower application rates for these chemicals, though this can really only be seen by looking back over decades rather than years.
For example, the herbicide 2,4-D is typically applied at rates of about g ha -1 , while the best of the modern herbicides such as the sulfonylureas are effective at rates as low as 10g ha Modern compounds are also safer than their older counterparts, and the hurdles for registration are higher than in the past.
Residual levels in food are measured to ensure they do not pose a health risk, and their persistence in the environment and bioaccumulation are also determined. The non-selective herbicide glyphosate 1 was introduced by Monsanto in This herbicide controls the growth of a wide variety of plants, both weeds and crops, and compounds of this type can be used as an alternative to ploughing. Glyphosate was discovered during a chemistry-led research programme in which more than novel aminomethylphosphonic acids were synthesised and tested for interesting properties in a variety of screens.
Farmers use glyphosate when they want to clear all the plants from a field. The herbicide kills even perennial plants, since it can move from the leaf, where the spray droplets fall, into the root. Glyphosate inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimatephosphate synthase EPSPS , an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids, which are required for protein biosynthesis and thus plant growth.
This enzyme is absent in mammals which rely on plants in their diet for aromatic amino acids , so glyphosate has little toxicity. The compound is also safe in the environment, since it binds to soil and degrades quickly. Mesotrione 2 , a Syngenta product, is one of a family of herbicides which inhibit 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase HPPD , an enzyme on the biochemical pathway that leads to plastoquinone, a co-factor in carotenoid biosynthesis. Carotenoids are essential pigments in plants which harvest light energy for growth and protect the plant from photodamage.
Mesotrione is a selective herbicide, providing post-emergence control of broad-leaf weeds in maize, and is often used in mixtures with other herbicides to take advantage of dual modes of action. Mesosulfuron-methyl 3 was developed by chemists at Bayer CropScience and is a member of the sulfonylurea family of herbicides that act by inhibiting the enzyme acetolactate synthase ALS , which catalyses a step in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids.
It is used for the post-emergence control of grasses and some broad-leaf weeds in cereal crops at rates as low as 15g ha Azoxystrobin 4 , the world's largest-selling fungicide, was discovered and developed by Syngenta chemists. A broad-spectrum member of the strobilurin family, this fungicide acts by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration in fungi by binding at a specific site on cytochrome b, and thereby blocking the production of adenosine triphosphate ATP and suppressing the energy cycle.
The azoles, compounds containing a 1,2,4-triazole or, in a few cases, an imidazole ring, are another important class of fungicide. They act by inhibiting the biosynthesis of ergosterol, an important component of fungal cell walls.
It has a broad spectrum of preventative and curative activity and is used, for example, in cereals, sugar beet, peanuts and oilseed rape. Mandipropamid 6 , a mandelic acid amide fungicide, was launched by Syngenta in It is used to prevent damage caused by various fungal diseases such as downy mildew on grapes and late blight on potatoes. The pyrethroids are a major class of insecticides, and have been in use for over 25 years.
Their synthesis was inspired by the natural pyrethrins. The chemical interferes with the function of membrane-spanning sodium channels, leading ultimately to paralysis and death. Thiamethoxam 8 Syngenta is an insecticide of the neonicotinoid family, first sold in , and used to control aphids, whiteflies, thrips, hoppers and other insect pests in a wide variety of crops, including rice, soybean, cereals, sugar beet and cotton.
Again, it interferes with the nervous system of insects but, in this case, is an agonist of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Rynaxypyr 9 , a new insecticide from DuPont, has recently received approval for use in the US and Canada. It selectively blocks calcium ion channels crucial for muscle function in insects.
It will be used in a variety of fruit and vegetable crops, including apples, grapes, tomatoes and lettuce. Despite the availability of so many chemicals for crop protection, there is always scope to replace some of the older products with better ones, especially those where resistance is becoming a problem.
The onset of resistance, though difficult to predict, is a feature of modern compounds with a specific biochemical mode of action. Small changes in the target organism, at the target site for example, render the compounds ineffective.
The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate is the world's largest-selling crop protection chemical. It is used in partnership with maize and soya which have been genetically engineered to be resistant to its effects.
However, after many years of extensive use, in , several species of glyphosate-resistant weeds emerged, followed by others from many parts of the world. So glyphosate will ultimately need a replacement and the discovery of such a compound will be a glittering prize for any crop protection company. Another driver for the search for new and improved products are the re-registration programmes currently going on in various regions of the world, including Europe.
These programmes are aimed at ensuring that all crop protection chemicals meet modern safety and environmental standards. The re-registration procedure is expensive, and the cost has to be met by the manufacturers.
As a consequence, some of the smaller products are being lost to the farmer because their sales don't justify the costs associated with re-registration. Chemists often work for long periods, sometimes years, in their search for new products, without discovering the one compound they are looking for that meets all of the following criteria:. As a consequence, successful projects have to lead to highly profitable new products which pay not only for themselves but also for all the unsuccessful research.
The research involves the synthesis and biological screening of many compounds. However, new technologies, especially advances in robotics, automation and data-handling, have dramatically changed the way in which a research project is done. For example, preliminary screens have been miniaturised, and test chemicals can now be applied to plants, fungi and insects growing in well microtitre plates. The plates are bar-coded and handled robotically, and the test chemicals, now required only in milligram quantities, are sprayed into the wells by computer-controlled instruments.
Chemists are also able to use automation to make sets of related compounds in parallel using the same synthetic steps, sometimes hundreds at a time, by 'combinatorial chemistry' or 'parallel synthesis'.
In fact, it is not difficult to make large numbers of compounds, the real skill is to design sets of compounds with diverse structures, and properties which are likely to lead to biological activity. Combinatorial chemistry has not been greatly successful as a way to generate new leads, but it is used to make targeted sets of chemicals more efficiently during optimisation programmes.
Nature is a rich source of biologically active compounds. Many plants, for example, produce insecticides to protect themselves, and micro-organisms are also prolific producers of bioactive natural products.
Natural products are important to the crop protection industry because they often have novel structures and modes of action. However, they do not usually have the properties required for a crop protection chemical. Poor photostability, for example, is sometimes a problem. Instead, they serve as inspiration for programmes of synthesis, which lead to structurally related compounds, tailored to the properties required by a crop protection chemical. Finally, every company carefully monitors its competitors' patents to identify new areas of interest, looking for loopholes that can be exploited.
Although this approach is probably the most reliable way to find biological activity, it is not without its problems. By definition, the competitor is ahead of the game and, before long, several companies are likely to be working on closely-related chemistry and racing each other to the patent office. The world has recently had a wake-up call over food shortages, and climate change will also present agriculture with future challenges.
People now realise how precarious the balance is between supply and demand. Crop protection chemicals have an important contribution to make to the global challenge of producing more food from the same area of farming land. Certain species of Basidiomycete fungi that grow on rotting wood produce compounds with fungicidal activity.
In the s and s Czech and German chemists independently isolated and characterised a family of fungicides from this fungus. Two of the compounds - strobilurin A and oudemansin A - caught the attention of ICI chemists now Syngenta in the early s. Oudemansin A proved to have a useful spectrum of activity against fungi growing on plants in the glasshouse, though it lacked potency.
WHAT DO WE DO
Handbook of Industrial Chemistry and Biotechnology. Substantially revising and updating the classic reference in the field, this handbook offers a valuable overview and myriad details on current chemical processes, products, and practices. No other source offers as much data on the chemistry, engineering, economics, and infrastructure of the industry. The Handbook serves a spectrum of individuals, from those who are directly involved in the chemical industry to others in related industries and activities.
The market is segmented by mode of action herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, nematicides, molluscicide and others , by origin synthetic and bio-based , by the application grains and cereals, oilseeds, fruits and vegetables, turf and ornamentals, and others , and geography North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, and Africa. The global crop protection chemicals market was valued at USD The herbicides accounted for the largest share of The crop protection chemical industry has been transforming over the years, with robust growth, coupled with changing crop mix trends, and environmental regulations.
Importance of Crop Protection Products in Indian Agriculture
Agro Chemicals Products. Agrovista is a leading supplier of agronomy advice, seed, crop protection products and precision farming services. Common uses for our Liquid Storage Tanks include the storage of fertilizer solutions, agricultural chemicals, water, liquid feeds and plant foods. Magazine focuses on new technology, products and input management for Midwest agricultural chemical and fertilizer dealers, applicators and grain elevators. Browse all recalls; Guidance for suppliers. We're bringing together people, ideas, and resources to deliver products, technology and ways of operating that build successful businesses and communities. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and nutritive value of agro-industrial by-products in ruminant nutrition in Eritrea.
Crop protection chemicals
Chemical crop protection products, commonly referred to as pesticides or agrochemical products, play a vital role in controlling the pests and diseases that infect, consume or damage crops thereby significantly reducing the quantity and quality of food production, while the benefits of agricultural innovation goes to farmers and consumers. It is estimated that annual crop losses could double without the use of crop protection products. Based on the type of pesticide, the pesticide market is classified into fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, and others.
Interpretation of China’s Regulatory Requirements on Public Health Pesticides
To strengthen pesticide supervision, the State Council of the People's Republic of China formulated and implemented new version of Regulation on Pesticide Administration in , and then Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs promulgated a series of supporting regulations successively for detailed provisions on pesticide registration, pesticide production, pesticide business operation, pesticide application, pesticide supervision and administration as well as legal liabilities, which caused certain impacts on pesticide industry and certain changes in public health pesticide supervision. Definition and classification of public health pesticides. Chapter 2 of new version of Data Requirements on Pesticide Registration has clarified definition of public health pesticides, which refer to pesticide used for prevention and control of mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches, ants and other pests in living environment of human beings as well as living environment of animals in breeding industry under agriculture and forestry industry.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: DJI MG-1S - Agricultural Wonder Drone
It also highlights how agrochemicals contribute to building a more sustainable society. Accompanying this growth is a demand for grain that is expected to increase at least 2. In contrast to needed increases in grain demand to parallel population growth, the amount of cultivated area in the world in was virtually the same as it was in , with no rapid increase expected in the future. Therefore, combined with the predicted population growth, it appears that cultivated area per person will continue to decline worldwide. Climate change is also looming as a major threat to grain production. On the one hand, temperatures rise could extend the growing season in certain areas, and it is possible that increased carbon dioxide levels may facilitate photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation in certain types of plants, potentially leading to increases in grain productivity.
Agro Chemicals Products
Our specialists have developed highly efficient and cost-effective products to protect against disease, weeds and crop pests. Fungicides chemicals from the group of pesticides. These drugs kill or prevent the development of spores or mycelium of pathogenic fungi and bacteria which are the causative agents of various plant diseases. Since , our company is a member of the Union of manufacturers of plant protection products. Today the production area is a separate area of 4 hectares.
Plant protection products registration and its role in the new agricultural model
In , the world population was estimated to stand at 2. From the point of view of the agricultural model, the decades immediately following the Second World War saw an increase in food production, which continued with the consolidation of the Welfare State and democratic progress in developed countries. At that time, the goal was to maximise production in order to feed a continuously growing world population and to achieve that, the chemical and pharmaceutical industries provided the best available aids. However, the reality we face today has nothing to do with the model that grew and expanded in the heyday of industrial development that took place in the second half of the 20th century.
Importance of Crop Protection Products in Indian Agriculture
The global crop protection chemicals market size valued at USD Global crop protection chemicals sales have marginally recovered in after a consecutive fall in and Agrochemical companies were able to achieve a marginal rise in their sales in despite the negative market sentiments such as adverse weather conditions in Europe, a decline in area under corn crop in the U.
Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, Second Edition addresses important issues by examining topics of global agriculture and food systems that are key to understanding the challenges we face. Questions it addresses include:. These are among the most important challenges that face our planet in the coming decades. The broad themes of food systems and people, agriculture and the environment, the science of agriculture, agricultural products, and agricultural production systems are covered in more than separate chapters of this work.
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