Product industrial low Frequency Standalone Amplifiers
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- Purifi Audio: A Conversation About Amplifiers and Speakers
- Power Amplifier Company List
- High Power Solid State RF & Microwave Amplifiers 6 GHz and below
- Phantom 500 Linear Amplifier
- Best Quad Amplifier
- Can You Really Get ppm Accuracies from Op Amps?
- StarServe Ampilfier Bluetooth, Stand Alone 50W Rms
- Purifi Audio: A Conversation About Amplifiers and Speakers
- Live Sound
- Rf Man Amplifiers
Purifi Audio: A Conversation About Amplifiers and Speakers
Industrial and medical design continually push to improve product accuracy and speed. The analog integrated circuit industry has generally kept up with speed requirements, but it is falling behind on accuracy demands. There is a march toward 1 ppm accurate systems, especially now that 1 ppm linear ADCs are becoming common. This article presents op amp accuracy limitations and how to choose the few op amps that have a chance of 1 ppm accuracy. We will also discuss a few application improvements to existing op amp limitations.
Accuracy is about numbers: how closely a system works to intended numerical value. Precision is about the depth of the numerical value in terms of digits. In this article we will use accuracy as a term that includes all limitations to system measurements, such as noise, offset, gain error, and nonlinearity. Many op amps have some error terms at ppm levels, but none have all the errors at the ppm level. For instance, chopper amplifiers can provide ppm-level offset voltages, dc linearity, and low frequency noise, but they have problematic input bias currents and linearity at frequency.
Bipolar amplifiers can provide low wideband noise and good linearity, but their input currents can still cause in-circuit errors we will hence use the term application for in-circuit. MOS amplifiers have excellent bias currents but are generally deficient in the low frequency noise and linearity areas. In this article we will use the rough equivalency of 1 ppm nonlinearity in the transfer function as — dBc distortion in harmonic distortion. The least linearity is found in so-called video or line driver amplifiers.
Expected accuracies are 0. There is the audio amplifier class of op amps. They are fairly cheap, and their distortions can be very good. They also cannot deliver distortion beyond perhaps 10 kHz. There are op amps meant to support MHz signals linearly. This application space sees more like —80 dBc to — dBc performance, and ppm performance is not practical with these op amps.
Current feedback amplifiers also cannot support deep linearity nor even modest accuracy, no matter how wideband nor huge their slew rates may be. Their input stage has a mess of error sources, and they do not have much gain nor input nor supply rejections. Current feedback amplifiers also have a thermal drift that extends fine settling times greatly. Then we have the modern general-purpose amplifiers. They support — dBc distortion but usually not when heavily loaded.
Figure 1 shows a simplified op amp block diagram with ac and dc error sources added. The topology is a single-pole amplifier with an input g m that drives a gain node that is buffered as the output. While there are many op amp topologies, the error sources shown apply to them all. We could filter this noise down: for instance, dropping bandwidth to 1 kHz drops the noise to 0. Low-pass filtering in the frequency domain drops noise magnitude, as would averaging the output of an ADC over time.
Figure 2 shows the current and voltage noise of a good high accuracy amplifier, the LT Generally, the two current noises are uncorrelated and do not cancel with equal input resistors but add in rms fashion. The major effect of CMRR on signals is that the linear part is indistinguishable from a gain error. The nonlinear part will be a distortion. The added line intersects extreme points of the CMRR curve just before the curve diverges into overload.
The CMRR curve diverges from a perfect line by only about 0. Other amplifiers can have much more curvature. So, the onus of offset is not so much on the op amps; the system will have to auto-zero itself, anyway. The broken lines suggest that the bias currents are variable with voltage and also may not be linear. There are four I CMRR s because both inputs can have independent bias currents and level dependencies, and because each input is varied by both supplies independently.
The circuit effect of the I CMRR s which sum to form bias current is to multiply against application circuit resistances to add to overall circuit offset. Figure 4 shows the bias currents of an LT vs. Figure 1 shows the input stage, which is generally a transconductor made from a differential pair of transistors. The top of Figure 5 shows the collector, or drain currents, of various differential amplifier types vs. We simulate a simple bipolar pair, a translinear circuit that we will call clever bipolar , a subthreshold that is, very large MOS differential pair, a bipolar pair with emitter resistors degenerated in Figure 5 , and a smaller MOS pair operating out of the subthreshold region and into its square-law regime.
Not a lot of information is obvious until we display transconductance vs. V IN , as shown at the bottom of Figure 5. The non-flatness of g m is the basic distortion mechanism of op amps at frequency.
R1 and R2 represent the output impedances of various transistors in the signal path, each connected to a supply rail or other. This is the basis of limited gain in an op amp. R1 and R2 are not guaranteed to be linear; they are a cause of unloaded distortion or nonlinearity.
Aside from linearity, we need gains approaching or exceeding one million for ppm gain accuracies. Observing the standard bipolar curve, we see it has the greatest transconductance of the group, but that transconductance fades quickly as the input moves from zero volts. This is concerning—a basic requirement for linearity is constant gain or g m. On the other hand, who cares that the amplifier voltage gain is so high that the differential input would only move microvolts as the output moves volts?
It sets the gain bandwidth product GBW of the amplifier. Figure 6 shows the distortion vs. This will appear times the noise gain at the output of the application circuit. You may get more output distortion than this, but not less. Excluding the clever bipolar stage, the differential amps show that the distortion is proportional to the square of the input. In a unity-gain application, the output distortion contribution is equal to the input distortion. This is the dominant distortion source for most op amps.
Consider a unity-gain buffer with a bipolar input. For an output of V OUT peak-to-peak volts, the input differential signal would be.
Given an amplifier with a bipolar input stage, a 15 MHz GBW, and outputting 5 V p-p as a buffer, Equation 2 tells us that the maximum frequency for that linearity is just Hz. This assumes the amplifier is at least that linear at lower frequencies.
Of course, when the amplifier provides gain, the noise gain increases and the — dBc frequency drops. Clever bipolar does not follow the distortion prediction and one must get estimates from the data sheet. As a side-note, there are many op amps with rail-to-rail input stages. Most get this ability from two separate input stages that have a hand-off from one to the other over the input common-mode range. This hand-off generates changes in offset voltage, and potentially bias current, noise, and even bandwidth.
It also essentially causes a switching transient at the output. These amplifiers cannot be used for low distortion if the signal ever traverses the crossover region. An inverting application may work, however.
These designs do not run out of current with large differential inputs. Unfortunately, small differential inputs still cause variations in g m of similar magnitude to the inputs discussed, and low distortion still demands a large loop gain at frequency. Since we are looking for ppm-level distortion, we will not operate the amplifier anywhere near its slew rate limit, so, oddly enough slew rate is not an important parameter for ppm linearity at frequency , just GBW. Not all op amps are compensated that way.
The next items in Figure 1 to discuss are R1 and R2. These resistors have been drawn with the variable and nonlinear strikethrough in the schematic. Note how PSRR is almost equivalent to open-loop gain in magnitude. The power supply terminals can be a source of distortion. When the output stage drives a heavy load, that load current flows from one of the supplies. The supply current drops across the bypass capacitors. Since the output is class AB, only half of the output current waveform modulates the supply, creating even harmonic distortion.
PSRR over frequency attenuates the supply disturbance. The last item in Figure 1 is the output stage, which is considered a buffer for this discussion. A typical output stage transfer function is shown in Figure 7. For the different loads, we see four kinds of error. Even the unloaded output clips, in this case, mV from each supply rail.
The output clips at successively lower voltages as the load is increased decreased load resistance. Obviously, clipping is a disaster for distortion and the output swing must be reduced to avoid it. The next error is gain compression, which we see as curvature in the transfer function at the extremes of signal.
The compression happens at earlier voltages as the load is increased, and like clipping no ppm-level distortion is generally possible in this regime. This compression is generally due to a small output stage that is struggling to output required current. Unloaded, the crossover kink may not be apparent, but with increasing loading we get something like the exaggerated kink of the green curve.
Eliminating crossover distortion generally demands robust supply current. The last distortion is harder to perceive. Because there are some bits of amplifier circuitry that output positive voltages and currents, and other bits for negative signals, there is no guarantee that they have the same gain, especially when loaded.
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Print Issue: June However, commercial building operators have been hesitant to endorse the new technology due to its associated costs; low frequency systems consume more power to produce a tone, which may ultimately affect the monthly energy bill. However, the benefits of low frequency technology are apparent. The peer-reviewed alarm reviewed studies driving the NFPA's requirements have shown that a Hz low frequency alarm is six times more effective in a fire event than the standard 3 KHz audible alarm signal at waking high-risk groups, such as people over 65 years old, people who are hard of hearing, school-aged children, and people who are alcohol impaired.
High Power Solid State RF & Microwave Amplifiers 6 GHz and below
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Phantom 500 Linear Amplifier
Power Amplifiers Editor's Note: Because of the disparity between typical tube and solid-state "sounds," we have split Class A for separate power amplifiers into two subclasses. Nevertheless, even within each subclass, Class A amplifiers differ sufficiently in character that each will shine in an appropriate system. Careful auditioning with your own loudspeakers is therefore essential. Except where stated, output powers are not the specified powers but rather those we measured into an 8 ohm resistive load. All amplifiers are stereo models, except where designated.
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Start Frequency: MHz. Stop Frequency: MHz. Output Power: Watts.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Best stereo amplifier: Cambridge Audio CXA81 is Product of the Year
The operational amplifier is undoubtedly one of the most useful and versatile components available to the electrical engineer. These devices are relatively easy to understand and implement, and they can be incorporated into circuits ranging from the most basic analog buffer to high-order filters and complex signal generators. As the name implies, the voltage follower is a circuit in which the output voltage follows the input voltage. As shown in the diagram below, an operational amplifier is the only required component. The voltage follower is a good reminder that the value of operational amplifiers goes far beyond amplification.
Can You Really Get ppm Accuracies from Op Amps?
The DM gives installers a revolutionary user interface, greatly simplifying the process of optimizing system performance and delivering the finest automotive sound to consumers. The DM also incorporates a connectivity port that will allow users to program DSP features using Android or iOS devices, as well as stream media including high-quality audio via an optional AudioControl Bluetooth device. The DM has eight active high-level speaker inputs, six pre-amp inputs, and two digital inputs plus ten pre-amp outputs. The AudioControl DM also features a 5-year warranty. AudioControl is a U. Patent is 9,, for their innovative AccuBASS technology for both automotive and home audio applications. AccuBASS technology has been designed to give listeners a highly accurate representation of the low frequency range 50 Hz to Hz of any recording and is featured in several AudioControl products including the newly launched DM, the latest in digital signal processing for OEM automotive sound systems, and a CTA Innovations Award Honoree. In the majority of factory installed automotive sound systems, bass content is automatically reduced by circuitry in the audio electronics as volume is increased by the listener to reduce stress on the speakers.
Industrial and medical design continually push to improve product accuracy and speed. The analog integrated circuit industry has generally kept up with speed requirements, but it is falling behind on accuracy demands. There is a march toward 1 ppm accurate systems, especially now that 1 ppm linear ADCs are becoming common.
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You might want to choose an amplifier that has more power than you need in case you expand your applications. The Dohety power amplifier. The Magnetic Field Coil Power Amplifier used vacuum tubes, coils of wire, and transformers to turn high voltage low currency to low voltage high currency output.
Purifi Audio: A Conversation About Amplifiers and Speakers
Phantom Linear Amplifier. The SLA-2 is a studio linear power amp that delivers watts of clean,. It automatically monitors your power needs and selects the right broadband filter. Modern magnetic resonance imaging MRI systems consist of large numbers of complex, high cost subsystems.
В свете дневных ламп он увидел красноватые и синеватые следы в ее светлых волосах. - Т-ты… - заикаясь, он перевел взгляд на ее непроколотые уши, - ты, случайно, серег не носила.
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К счастью, Дэвид это обнаружил.
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Все посмотрели на вновь организованный текст, выстроенный в горизонтальную линию. - По-прежнему чепуха, - с отвращением скривился Джабба. - Смотрите.