Produce commercial plant and animal fiber processing products
Fiber or fibre in British English , see spelling differences ; from the Latin fibra  is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide. The strongest engineering materials often incorporate fibers, for example carbon fiber and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene. Synthetic fibers can often be produced very cheaply and in large amounts compared to natural fibers, but for clothing natural fibers can give some benefits, such as comfort, over their synthetic counterparts. Natural fibers develop or occur in the fiber shape, and include those produced by plants, animals, and geological processes.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Alpaca Shearing & Fiber Processing
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It briefly outlines the framework for economic activity during the period leading up to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The article thus explores how the uses of wool and hair from domestic animals are practices which reflect the economic and social situation of the household as well as wider societal processes. Many move several times a year with their herds between seasonal settlements.
Most people in this province are dependent, either directly or indirectly through family networks, on domestic animals for their livelihood. Sheep, goats, horses, cattle, yaks or hybrids 1 and camels provide meat and dairy products, which together with flour are the staples of the Kazakh diet.
The herds also yield wool and hair, which are used in the everyday production of textiles and artefacts for the home.
Cattle and horse hair is braided to make rope for the yurt 3. Sheep and lamb skins are occasionally sold when market conditions are favourable. Some Kazakh women also produce felt and embroidered artefacts for sale to tourists and through non-governmental organisations NGOs or charity-run projects operating in the province.
It considers the detail of domestic uses of wool and hair, the social life around such uses and production routines, and a variety of economic strategies with these products. In this way, the article seeks to show how the uses of animal products are practices which reflect the economic and social situation of the household as well as wider economic and political processes.
In western Mongolia, each district sum coincided with a collective cf. Sneath , p. The collectives were thus economic and territorial units and constituted the legal and judiciary framework for economic activity Finke b, p.
In addition to employing mobile pastoralists, the collectives employed people in a range of jobs. Households were assigned livestock and had to deliver certain quantities of animal products at fixed prices Finke a, p. Dairy products and meat, wool or hides, as well as horns were collected and processed in or distributed from the district and province centres.
Nevertheless, the system had its own informal level of negotiation and flexibility see also Finke b, pp. Typically a herd of goats or sheep consisted of animals Finke a, p. Domestic needs, met from these privately owned animals, generally provided households with sufficient meat, dairy and wool, and processing of animal products for household consumption thus continued during the state socialist period, from cheese to felt making.
In the early s, this flow of trade ceased with the temporary closure of the border between Mongolia and Russia. Trade later resumed when the border was reopened, but only in the form of small-scale private initiatives. Villages near the border now serve as trading points where local Kazakh traders do not need a visa or international passport.
Some Kazakh hunters also bring wolf, fox and other furs to sell at these border trading posts and some traders bring animal products such as lamb skins. Such practices are directly affected by rising inflation and the cost of petrol, however. In , for instance, there were reports that traders no longer found such trips profitable given the rising cost of petrol 4 and the falling price offered by Russian traders cf.
Kerven et al. Such factories and workshops were gradually privatised in the early s. The local economic situation mirrored a national-level economic decline. Over a ten-year period, the number of persons living below the poverty line increased from less than one percent to 33 percent Sneath , p. As unemployment rose, the currency and savings and pension funds were devalued, and subsidies on essential goods as well as for education and healthcare were reduced or eliminated see Badarch et al.
This almost trebled the number of workers directly reliant on pastoralism for their livelihood, from less than 18 percent of the national workforce in to 50 percent in ibid. Thus, at the same time as a greater proportion of the population became dependent on small holdings of livestock, the economy became increasingly subsistence-based and there was a relative withdrawal of the pastoral sector from the market see Finke , p.
Moreover, there was a move towards multi-species and older herds, said to be more resistant to diseases and harsh weather conditions see Finke , p. In order to sustain them through the winter, most households slaughter approximately a dozen sheep or goats as well as one or two large domestic animals cattle or horses in the winter slaughter. This takes place in November, when the animals retain reserves of fat from the summer, but the temperature has dropped sufficiently for the meat to freeze and keep throughout the winter in an outside shed.
In addition, throughout the summer and autumn, at least one small animal is slaughtered every days for domestic consumption. The number of new births, of course, has to be equal to or more than the number of animals consumed in any one year. The winters of and , for instance, saw a total loss of six million livestock across the country Sneath , p.
Unusually harsh weather conditions recurred in the winter of and most recently in Losses of grown animals occur during the winter months, when the animals have difficulty getting to the pasture due to snow fall, or because pasture is simply not adequate in a given winter settlement area, a problem perpetuated by a preceding dry summer.
Summer is usually the time of year when dairy products abound. It affects them on a domestic level, in terms of whether they will have enough wool and hair to renew the felt carpets they use in their home and whether they are able to repair or make new felt covers for their summertime dwelling, the yurt. It affects their social life in terms of whether they are able to contribute to the weddings of relatives with gifts of carpets and other artefacts.
It affects their seasonal migration choices, as with only few animals there may not be any need to move to other pasture areas, and there may also not be the funds to pay for the petrol required to undertake such a move. Herding families now privately own their animals and have no form of government support to help them get through such climatic conditions.
This had previously been a stable and adequately paid position, but over the past fifteen years the salary had not kept pace with inflation and it had been paid at increasingly irregular intervals. Even the work itself had become unpredictable since the school did not always have adequate supplies of coal. The herd provided milk and meat for daily consumption. Flour, salt, tea and other essential goods were bought in bulk every few months at the market in the province centre.
In , however, Aizhan became a member of a small, newly established craft co-operative with a dozen members, set up with the help of a North American charity. She began to make a variety of embroidered artefacts bags, pillow covers, table runners, such as the one in photo 1 sold to tourists and via the internet to western consumers. The income the co-operative gained from this work was highly seasonal, summertime tourists being the main buyers. Photo 1.
An embroidered handbag, made by a member of a crafts cooperative. By local standards her salary was relatively high. From the perspective of time spent, the cost of involvement, and the share Aizhan received, her membership of the co-operative was a unique and positive opportunity, she felt.
The pasture around the village was sufficient and their relatively small herd did not require such a move. Moreover, the substantial cost was difficult to cover enlisting the help of a relative in possession of or with access to a truck and paying for the petrol.
Moreover, usually at least two or three households will set up their summertime yurts together forming a summer settlement Kz. Thus the summer months were spent only twenty metres from their winter mud-brick house, which was used for storing some belongings and furniture, and the relatively cool shed was used to hang freshly cut and salted meat, just as in winter.
She and her brothers learnt the steps involved in taking care of the animals and processing the raw materials by participating with their parents and siblings in their daily routine. If individuals had a preference or a particular aptitude for a certain task, they might choose to ignore this loosely defined division of household tasks. A few men helped their wives in quilting carpets and spinning wool. In this way, it was often practices like joking or gossiping that worked to delineate gendered roles.
Elderly women and men would ordinarily be held in high respect and often oversaw household tasks and provided instructions. The sense in which older family members were held in respect and taught their children to carry out important functions in the household could thus be seen in the way everyday tasks were organised. Collaborative tasks, such as preparing wool and making felt, also indicated a social organisation of household tasks defined loosely along age and gender lines.
They worked together, shearing one or two animals per day. The wool was collected, separated according to quality and colour and kept in the shed. Finke a, p. The first shearing gave a coarse wool that was full of the dirt and dust of the previous autumn, winter and spring. This wool would need to be treated for longer to get rid of the dirt and separate the fibres, but could be used to make felt for the cover of the yurt, for instance photo 3.
The wool from the August shearing was shorter, softer and cleaner, making it more suitable for finer projects such as felt carpets Kz. The wool from lambs born the same year from January and into the spring was of the finest quality and was similarly used for carpets, unless the lamb skins were used for lining waist coats or winter coats.
In August , Aizhan and Bolat had not gathered enough wool to make felt, but Aizhan cleaned, carded and spun the wool they had gathered and used this yarn together with felt, which she bought from a neighbouring household, and bought fabric, to make two felt carpets in the course of the winter.
In one household on the outskirts of the village, a make-shift yurt Kz. A heap of wool was laid on top of an old sheep skin. Several girls had been enlisted to help with the task. They kneeled in a circle and beat the wool with willow sticks. This is dusty, hot and tiring work that requires each participant to maintain the same rhythm. The work was carried out inside the qos to avoid tufts of wool from flying off, as it was a relatively windy day. The girls were quickly out of breath but joked and sang popular Kazakh and western pop songs to hold the rhythm.
Photo 5. This was done under the supervision of the most senior woman in the household. She brought boiling water from the stove inside the kiiz yi and sprinkled the wool — a step that releases the lanolin and helps the fibres mesh together. The reed mat with the layers of wool was then rolled up carefully and secured with rope. It was then rolled for two hours. The senior woman participated for a while, demonstrating to the girls how to push and tug at the rolled-up reed mat, after which her place was then taken by a young woman.
The reed mat was then unrolled and the felt rolled up again without the reed mat, and rolled for a while longer photo 6. The whole process, from beating to rolling, lasted from morning to evening. Finally, the piece was left to dry in the sun on felt making see also Batchuluun , Bunn , Burkett , Mullins Camel wool thread is used to sew and quilt these carpets.
Camel wool makes for a strong thread and is spun either on a handheld spindle or by hand photo 8. Many families have one or two camels, and only a few camels yield enough wool for spinning thread or yarn for knitting , the wool being cut in late spring or summer when the animal moults. Camel wool thread Kz. Photo 7. The bottom felt layer would still serve to insulate from the cold floor, and would make for a thick and comfortable carpet, but would not be seen under the top layer.
Britannica Year in Review
It briefly outlines the framework for economic activity during the period leading up to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The article thus explores how the uses of wool and hair from domestic animals are practices which reflect the economic and social situation of the household as well as wider societal processes. Many move several times a year with their herds between seasonal settlements. Most people in this province are dependent, either directly or indirectly through family networks, on domestic animals for their livelihood. Sheep, goats, horses, cattle, yaks or hybrids 1 and camels provide meat and dairy products, which together with flour are the staples of the Kazakh diet.
Natural fibre , any hairlike raw material directly obtainable from an animal, vegetable, or mineral source and convertible into nonwoven fabrics such as felt or paper or, after spinning into yarns, into woven cloth. A natural fibre may be further defined as an agglomeration of cells in which the diameter is negligible in comparison with the length. Although nature abounds in fibrous materials, especially cellulosic types such as cotton , wood , grains, and straw , only a small number can be used for textile products or other industrial purposes. Apart from economic considerations, the usefulness of a fibre for commercial purposes is determined by such properties as length, strength, pliability, elasticity, abrasion resistance, absorbency, and various surface properties.
BSCI 124 Lecture Notes
Please join StudyMode to read the full document. Importance of fiber length and maturity in short staple spinning General - Technology of Short-staple Spinning : "Technology of Short-staple Spinning" deals with the basics, and therefore generally valid, technological relationships in short-staple spinning. The following chapters will be organized according to machines or machine groups. Generally valid basic principles will thus be kept separate from ongoing developments in machine design and construction. Introduction to Spinning : The annual world fiber consumption in amounted to approx. While about one third of the man-made fibers is processed as endless filament, still two thirds come in staple fiber form. The larger part of staple fiber , approx.
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Plant and animal fibers have provided humans with, among other things, shelter, vessels in which to hold water and cook food, and thread for making fabrics. Even tho most of the world has abandoned mud and waddle home construction and baskets smeared with clay as water vessels or cooking utensils, plant fibers as a source of weaving still remains current in use. In prehistoric times humans probably obtained flexible plant fibers simply by pulling off strips of bark or cutting stems and leaves onto thin, weavable ribbons. Altho these materials can be lashed and interlaced into mats and baskets, they produce only coarse, stiff items. Major innovation was the discovery that individual fibers could be separated from surrounding cells and used to weave textiles.
Please fill in your details to download the Table of Contents of this report for free. We also do customization of these reports so you can write to us at mi fibre2fashion. Fibre is the starting point of the textile chain.
Extraction and Textile Qualities of Fibers from Some Xerophytic Plants
The significant of natural fiber in artistic manipulations cannot be overestimated, hence there is need to resuscitate its extraction and production. A study was conducted on the extraction and the textile potentials of fibers from four xerophytic plants namely: Agave sisaliana , Agave americana , Pandanus sanderi and Sanservieria trifasciate. The results of this experiment showed highest level of retting in plants soaked in solution D followed by solution B and the lowest from solution A after the first three days. Agave americana fiber was more subtle, smooth and with fine strands.
Register Now. Fiber is a fine hair-like structure and is considered the raw materials of textiles. The fiber is extracted from various sources for commercial use. In addition to obtaining from animals, plants, and minerals, many of the fibers are artificially generated as well. Here is a list of most commonly used textile fibers.
Fibers are long strands of molecules interwoven to form a linear, stringlike structure. They may be natural or made by humans and are essential to. A portion of a cellulose fiber. Natural fibers are of plant or animal origin. In many cases, synthetic fibers mimic natural fibers. Among the natural fibers are cellulose, the primary structural component of plants and bacterial cell walls; animal fibers such as wool and silk; and biochemical fibers.
The fact is that food is made up of three main things: carbohydrate, protein, and fat. You need all of these to stay healthy, but the amounts that each person needs or chooses to eat may be very different. The most important thing is choosing the carbs that give you the most bang for your buck in terms of vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Processed foods tend to be high in carbohydrate while very low in vitamins, minerals, and fiber, giving carbs a bad rap. But choosing less processed carb foods and paying attention to how much you are eating can make a big difference in your blood sugar and overall health.
Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats , qiviut from muskoxen , from hide and fur clothing from bison , angora from rabbits , and other types of wool from camelids ;  additionally, the Highland and the Mangalica breeds of cattle and swine , respectively, possess woolly coats. Wool consists of protein together with a small percentage of lipids. In this regard it is chemically quite distinct from the more dominant textile, cotton , which is mainly cellulose.
Environmental and Ethical Issues In The Production Of Natural Fabrics and Fibres
First, 9Fiber decontaminates any biowaste from federally illegal substances, removing the THC. Approximately 1. If you are looking for harvesting and processing equipment for hemp or other natural fibers and seeds we can assist you in selecting and purchasing the equipment required. When we use the word "hemp" we do so to distinguish it from other varieties1 of Cannabis sativa L.
Natural fibers may be of animal , vegetable, or mineral origin. Although the annual production of vegetable fibers outweighs that of animal or mineral fibers, all have long been useful to humans. Animal hair fibers consist of a protein known as keratin. It has a composition similar to human hair. Keratin proteins are actually crystalline copolymers of nylon, where the repeating units are amino acids.
As with many discoveries of early man, anthropologists believe the use of wool came out of the challenge to survive. In seeking means of protection and warmth, humans in the Neolithic Age wore animal pelts as clothing. Finding the pelts not only warm and comfortable but also durable, they soon began to develop the basic processes and primitive tools for making wool. By B. People soon began to develop and maintain herds of wool-bearing animals.