Produce commercial instrumentation
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Electric generator , also called dynamo , any machine that converts mechanical energy to electricity for transmission and distribution over power lines to domestic, commercial, and industrial customers.
Generators also produce the electrical power required for automobiles, aircraft, ships, and trains. The mechanical power for an electric generator is usually obtained from a rotating shaft and is equal to the shaft torque multiplied by the rotational, or angular, velocity. The mechanical power may come from a number of sources: hydraulic turbines at dams or waterfalls; wind turbines; steam turbines using steam produced with heat from the combustion of fossil fuels or from nuclear fission; gas turbines burning gas directly in the turbine; or gasoline and diesel engines.
The construction and the speed of the generator may vary considerably depending on the characteristics of the mechanical prime mover.
Nearly all generators used to supply electric power networks generate alternating current , which reverses polarity at a fixed frequency usually 50 or 60 cycles, or double reversals, per second. Since a number of generators are connected into a power network, they must operate at the same frequency for simultaneous generation.
They are therefore known as synchronous generators or, in some contexts , alternators. A major reason for selecting alternating current for power networks is that its continual variation with time allows the use of transformers.
These devices convert electrical power at whatever voltage and current it is generated to high voltage and low current for long-distance transmission and then transform it down to a low voltage suitable for each individual consumer typically or volts for domestic service. The particular form of alternating current used is a sine wave , which has the shape shown in Figure 1. This has been chosen because it is the only repetitive shape for which two waves displaced from each other in time can be added or subtracted and have the same shape occur as the result.
The ideal is then to have all voltages and currents of sine shape. The synchronous generator is designed to produce this shape as accurately as is practical.
This will become apparent as the major components and characteristics of such a generator are described below. An elementary synchronous generator is shown in cross section in Figure 2.
The central shaft of the rotor is coupled to the mechanical prime mover. The magnetic field is produced by conductors, or coils, wound into slots cut in the surface of the cylindrical iron rotor. This set of coils, connected in series, is thus known as the field winding. The position of the field coils is such that the outwardly directed or radial component of the magnetic field produced in the air gap to the stator is approximately sinusoidally distributed around the periphery of the rotor.
In Figure 2 , the field density in the air gap is maximum outward at the top, maximum inward at the bottom, and zero at the two sides, approximating a sinusoidal distribution.
The stator of the elementary generator in Figure 2 consists of a cylindrical ring made of iron to provide an easy path for the magnetic flux. In this case, the stator contains only one coil, the two sides being accommodated in slots in the iron and the ends being connected together by curved conductors around the stator periphery.
The coil normally consists of a number of turns. When the rotor is rotated, a voltage is induced in the stator coil. At any instant, the magnitude of the voltage is proportional to the rate at which the magnetic field encircled by the coil is changing with time—i.
The waveform of the voltage will be approximately of the sine form shown in Figure 1. The rotor structure of the generator in Figure 2 has two poles, one for magnetic flux directed outward and a corresponding one for flux directed inward.
One complete sine wave is induced in the stator coil for each revolution of the rotor. The frequency of the electrical output, measured in hertz cycles per second is therefore equal to the rotor speed in revolutions per second. To provide a supply of electricity at 60 hertz, for example, the prime mover and rotor speed must be 60 revolutions per second, or 3, revolutions per minute. This is a convenient speed for many steam and gas turbines.
For very large turbines, such a speed may be excessive for reasons of mechanical stress. The required rotor speed for a frequency of 60 hertz is then 1, revolutions per minute.
For lower speeds, such as are employed by most water turbines, a larger number of pole pairs can be used. Electric generator. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents.
Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Synchronous generators Rotor Stator Frequency Stator windings Phases Field excitation Generator rating High-speed synchronous generators Waterwheel generators Generators for motor vehicles Permanent-magnet generators Induction generators Inductor alternators Direct-current generators.
Electric generator instrument. Written By: Gordon R. See Article History. Subscribe Today. Load Next Page. More About.
Control and instrumentation engineer
Electric generator , also called dynamo , any machine that converts mechanical energy to electricity for transmission and distribution over power lines to domestic, commercial, and industrial customers. Generators also produce the electrical power required for automobiles, aircraft, ships, and trains. The mechanical power for an electric generator is usually obtained from a rotating shaft and is equal to the shaft torque multiplied by the rotational, or angular, velocity. The mechanical power may come from a number of sources: hydraulic turbines at dams or waterfalls; wind turbines; steam turbines using steam produced with heat from the combustion of fossil fuels or from nuclear fission; gas turbines burning gas directly in the turbine; or gasoline and diesel engines. The construction and the speed of the generator may vary considerably depending on the characteristics of the mechanical prime mover.
The knowledge obtained is then used for design of full-scale production systems and commercial products, as well as for identification of further research objectives and support of investment decisions. Other non-technical purposes include gaining public support for new technologies and questioning government regulations. Also, as pilot plants are intended for learning, they typically are more flexible, possibly at the expense of economy. Some pilot plants are built in laboratories using stock lab equipment, while others require substantial engineering efforts, cost millions of dollars, and are custom-assembled and fabricated from process equipment, instrumentation and piping.
An accredited degree or postgraduate qualification, alongside practical hands-on experience, is key to a career as a control and instrumentation engineer. Your job is to make sure that these systems and processes operate effectively, efficiently and safely. You might work for companies who manufacture and supply the equipment or for the companies who use it, such as nuclear and renewable energy companies and environmental agencies. You will need a thorough understanding of the operational processes of an organisation as your role is multidisciplinary, working closely with colleagues across a number of functions, including operations, purchasing and design. The use of these disciplines will depend on the exact nature of your individual job. In general however, tasks and responsibilities can include:. Salary levels vary according to the size of the organisation, industry sector and geographical location. Additional benefits may be offered such as a pension scheme and company car. It's normal to work irregular hours, as you may need to be on-call or on standby to deal with faults which occur at the plant or site.
Control and instrumentation engineer
Multimodality Molecular Imaging View all 8 Articles. State-of-the-art patient management frequently requires the use of non-invasive imaging methods to assess the anatomy, function or molecular-biological conditions of patients or study subjects. Hybrid imaging denotes image acquisitions on systems that physically combine complementary imaging modalities for an improved diagnostic accuracy and confidence as well as for increased patient comfort. The physical combination of formerly independent imaging modalities was driven by leading innovators in the field of clinical research and benefited from technological advances that permitted the operation of PET and MR in close physical proximity, for example.
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A scientific instrument is, broadly speaking, a device or tool used for scientific purposes, including the study of both natural phenomena and theoretical research. Historically, the definition of a scientific instrument has varied, based on usage, laws, and historical time period. Instrument makers designed, constructed, and refined instruments for specific purposes, but if demand was sufficient, an instrument would go into production as a commercial product.
Oxford University Press Bolero Ozon. Gary C. Howard , William E. Brown , Manfred Auer. This volume provides an overview of a variety of approaches to biological image analysis, which allow for the study of living organisms at all levels of complexity and organization.
The programme focuses on strengthening indigenous capability for research, design, development and production of instruments in the country leading to fulfillment of the following objectives: Programmes to support and sustain development and production of indigenous and affordable instruments are evolved and supported under the IDP. The following types of activities are evolved and supported under IDP:. Format and Guidelines for submission of proposals For details visit help page". Objectives The programme focuses on strengthening indigenous capability for research, design, development and production of instruments in the country leading to fulfillment of the following objectives: -: Indigenous development and production of instruments, Continuous updating of the technology of instruments to keep pace with technology improvements taking place globally, and Innovations in the area of instrumentation. Activities supported under IDP: Programmes to support and sustain development and production of indigenous and affordable instruments are evolved and supported under the IDP.
Handbook of Methods and Instrumentation in Separation Science, Volume 1 provides concise overviews and summaries of the main methods used for separation. It is based on the Encyclopedia of Separation Science. The handbook focuses on the principles of methods and instrumentation.
NCBI Bookshelf. Opportunities in Biology. Many of the recent advances in biology have been driven by the development of new technologies and instrumentation, such as recombinant DNA techniques, monoclonal antibody techniques, and microchemical instrumentation.
Some of them can be used by the community in collaboration with people from the corresponding PI group. The field of view is 11x11 arcmin 2. It was successfully commissioned in May All receivers are mounted in a single dewar in the Nasmyth A cabin.
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Astronomical Telescopes + Instrumentation 2020 in Yokohama, Japan
Лиланд Фонтейн окинул своего помощника убийственным взглядом. - Я был. Но сейчас я. ГЛАВА 69 - Эй, мистер. Беккер, шедший по залу в направлении выстроившихся в ряд платных телефонов, остановился и оглянулся.
Беккер наклонил голову и открыл дроссель до конца. Веспа шла с предельной скоростью. Прикинув, что такси развивает миль восемьдесят - чуть ли не вдвое больше его скорости, - он сосредоточил все внимание на трех ангарах впереди. Средний.