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Produce bulk yarn of chemical fibers and other

Produce bulk yarn of chemical fibers and other

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Synthetic fibers of acrylonitrile polymers are widely used because they embody a number of outstanding properties, one of the more important of which is their wool-like character.

Various methods of producing yarn have been adopted with a view to providing textile articles of these fibres with the bulk and feel of wool. For example, if shrinkable and fully shrunk staple fibres are spun together and the yarn is subjected to a shrinkage-initiating treatment by dyeing or steaming, the yarn "bulks up" through shrinkage of the shrinkable staple fibre and acquires a bulky, wool-like feel.

Another commercially important possibility is the breaking conversion by breaking of tows, in which a tow is broken into slivers of shrinkable fibres which, if desired, may be converted into non-shrinkable fibres by steaming. Under these circumstances, any processor is able to produce his own bulk yarn by suitably selecting the degree of shrinkage and the proportion of shrinkable fibres in the mixture as a whole.

In the process of conversion by breaking described above, it is necessary first of all to produce a shrinkable sliver from which part is removed for conversion into fully shrunk fibres.

Accordingly, the production of a non-shrinkable fibre with the fibre length distribution typical of conversion by breaking from an originally fully shrunk tow, followed by reunion with the shrinkable fibre, is a necessary extra step in the production of bulk yarn. In addition, the separate handling of both slivers on a production scale necessitates precautions against confusion and for maintaining weight ratio in the mixture of slivers.

Accordingly, a search was started for possibilities of producing bulk yarns by breaking tows of acrylonitrile fibres in machines of the kind referred to above without any need for the steps of steaming and combining component slivers, i. It was found that the difference in the shrinkage behaviour of two chemically different acrylonitrile filaments in tow form could be utilised by processing tows of this kind under the same tearing conditions.

The tow may either consist of a mixture of filaments or may be processed in the form of two chemically different tows. By virtue of the difference in shrinkage of their constituent fibres, slivers of tow mixtures or mixed tows of this kind may be directly shrunk and bulked without any need for further intermediate steps, thereby leading the way to a wide range of new bulk yarns.

Accordingly, the invention relates to a process for the production of bulk yarns of chemically different acrylonitrile polymers by breaking tows in conventional breaking machines, spinning the resulting slivers and shrinking the yarns thus obtained, distinguished by the fact that there is no steaming step between breaking and spinning.

It is possible to use a single tow consisting of chemically different filaments or, alternatively, two or more chemically different tows. Copolymers of acrylonitrile with ester monomers and acid dye additives are preferably used. Referring in particular to the group of copolymers of acrylonitrile, methyl acrylate and sodium methallyl sulphonate or m-methacrylamino benzene-benzene disulphonimide, it is possible to use pairs of products which differ in their content of acrylic acid methyl ester or dye additive or ester plus additive.

It is particularly preferred to use methyl acrylate as the ester component. Particularly preferred dye additives are methallyl sulphonic acid, m-methacrylamino benzene-benzene disulphonimide and their salts. The polymers are individually dry spun from conventional non-aqueous solutions, for example in dimethyl formamide or dimethyl sulphoxide, to form filaments which are then further processed either individually or in combination to form tows with individual fibre deniers of from 2.

Stretching ratios in the range of from 1 : 3. The chemical nature of the particular polymers selected for the purposes of the invention will determine the character assumed by the bulked and dyed, i. The difference in chemical composition influences dyeability, lustre, bulk, elasticity, feel, etc. It is possible by suitably selecting the components to obtain a more slender and clear, a more open and hairy or a more voluminous and mossy yarn.

Thus, the process according to the invention opens the way to a wide variety of new bulk yarns. The more slender medium-bulk yarns are of particular interest for use in the field of fine-knitted goods. The tows used in the process according to the invention are produced from commercially readily available acrylonitrile polymers. Promising product combinations may be assessed by preliminary tests with the individual products.

To this end, an acrylonitrile polymer is, for example, dry spun into filaments from a solution in dimethyl formamide. The filament yarn is stretched in a ratio of 1 : 3. The boiling-induced shrinkage subsequently measured is a reference point for the degree of shrinkage to be expected after conversion by breaking.

It has now been found that the boiling-induced shrinkage which stretched yarns of this kind undergo increases with increasing comonomer content in the acrylonitrile polymer, so that a difference in the comonomer content may be utilised to obtain a difference in the degree of shrinkage, because it has also been found that, for example, the boiling-induced shrinkage of fibres of so-called Turbo slivers also tends to increase with increasing comonomer content under uniform production conditions.

Accordingly, a bulk effect can be expected in mixed yarns where two distinctly different chemical compositions are selected for their shrinkable constituents. It is possible to obtain a narrower selection of the products, for example by initially subjecting tows based on different polymers to conversion by breaking on their own under the same test conditions. The boiling-induced shrinkage in twisted yarn form is then determined from the shrinkable slivers thus obtained. If, finally, mixed pairs of these slivers are produced, a survey of the bulking properties of the mixed yarns can be obtained immediately after spinning and shrinkage.

It is known among experts that, in the case of an acrylic tow, breaking can be made to produce very different results in regard to boiling-induced fibre-shrinkage, denier, strength elongation, length distribution etc. Naturally this also applies to tows in which the acrylic filaments have special chemical compositions, so that the particular setting of the breaking machine is an important factor in the commercial viability of breaking tows differing in their chemical composition.

In addition, it is generally known that the bulking character of bulk yarns can be influenced through the mixing ratio of their constituent fibres. For example, it is possible by varying the mixing ratio to convert a high-bulk yarn into a low-bulk yarn by passing the intermediate medium-bulk stage. Accordingly, the choice of the production conditions for the process according to the invention is virtually impossible to define in terms of figures so that, on the basis of the concept behind the invention, it will be possible to find other useful tows and compositions in addition to the examples given hereinafter without departing from the scope of the invention.

In addition to utilising tows of different chemical composition, the process according to the invention is further characterised by the production of slivers which can be bulked directly, i. As already mentioned, the material to be converted may be presented in such a way that the breaking machine receives, adjacent to one another, a tow of chemical type A and hence of predetermined shrinkage behaviour and a tow of chemical type B with different shrinkage level.

The weights of the two tows then determine the mixing ratio of A : B in the sliver produced by breaking. From the point of view of uniformity of processing, it is desirable to predetermine the subsequent mixing ratio between types A and B within a tow so that it is also possible to obtain greater latitude in regard to the overall weight and rate of travel of the sliver and hence in regard to machine output.

To this end, the mixture of filaments in the tow can be produced during the original spinning process for example by alternating spinnerets for types A and B or during the aftertreatment of the spun material for example by doubling slivers of types A and B. The preferred range for the A : B mixing ratio is from 33 : 67 to 67 : 33 by weight. The binary mixture or mixed tow is then uniformly further processed in known manner in the machines described earlier on by stretching between heated plates in a preferred stretching ratio of from 1 : 1.

The slivers based on fibres differing in their degree of shrinkage are passed through the usual stretching and preparatory spinning stages and the roving spun. Accordingly, tows of the kind in question are converted by breaking at an optimum setting of the breaking machine, in addition to which none of the fibre mass need be separated, and then specially treated and re-incorporated to produce the difference in shrinkage from fibre to fibre, as in the conventional bulk-yarn process.

The application of the invention is illustrated in the following with reference to a few examples of bulk yarn production. The invention is by no means limited to the product combinations and test conditions employed in these examples of bulk yarn production, so that special modifications or refinements do not fall outside the scope of the invention.

Selection of polymers for the purposes of the invention. The polymers, or mixtures thereof, were dissolved in dimethyl formamide and the filtered spinning solutions were dry spun through spinnerets with bores 0. The filament yarns with an overall denier of approximately dtex were then stretched under uniform conditions in boiling water in a ratio of 1 : 3. The boiling-induced shrinkage of the stretched yarns was determined after cooling and drying in air.

As shown in Table I, boiling-induced shrinkage increases with increasing comonomer content. Breaking was carried out in a Turbostapler with two ribbons at the heating-plate drafts and temperatures quoted in Table II. The mechanically crimped Turbo slivers were passed through two stretching and four preparatory spinning stages and spun into single yarns of denier dtex. Table II shows that, for a given setting of the breaking machine, increased boiling-induced yarn shrinkage levels are found in tows with a low acrylonitrile content based on the polymer or polymer mixture.

S and Add. M, cf. A tow with the same polymer composition as yarn No. The shrinkable and fully shrunk Turbo slivers were then mixed in a ratio of 40 : 60 and spun into a dtex single yarn with Z-twists per meter. The untreated yarn had a boiling-induced shrinkage of The shrunk and bulked yarn had a strength of 5. A tow with the same chemical composition as yarn No.

A yarn with a boiling-induced shrinkage of The dyed yarn was more slender and smoother than the yarn of the comparison Example, and the knitted article produced from it was smoother with a clear stitch pattern. A mixed spun yarn, of which 67 parts had the same chemical composition as yarn No. Wet stretching in a ratio of 1 : 3. After blank dyeing, this yarn was extremely bulky and the knitted article produced from it was fluffy-soft with an indistinct stitch pattern. Dry-spun material was separately produced from a polymer with the same chemical composition as yarn No.

The residual boiling-induced shrinkage amounted to 3. The boiling-induced shrinkage of the yarn amounted to The fully shrunk yarn had a tensile strength of After dyeing and knitting, a material with a soapy-smooth feel, average bulk and a clearer stitch pattern than the comparison material was obtained.

Following the procedure of Example 3, a mixed spun material of the same composition was produced and processed into a tow with a ribbon weight of The stretching ratio applied was 1 : 5. Two of these tows with an individual denier of 3.

The yarn had a boiling-induced shrinkage of After it had been knitted up, the dyed material strongly resembled the material of Example 3. Dry spun material was produced by separate spinning from a polymer with the same composition as yarn No. The dyed yarn was slender and smooth and the piece of knitted article produced from it was of medium bulk, soft feel and clearer stitch than reference piece. Following the procedure of Example 5, a spun material mixture with the same composition was produced and aftertreated in the same way as in Example 4, giving a tow with a ribbon weight of After shrinkage, the yarn had a tensile strength of The dyed and knitted yarn produced a textile material with a flat bulk, clean stitch pattern and very soft feel.

A tow with a ribbon weight of For a boiling-induced shrinkage of The dyed yarn was slender and smooth, whilst the knitted article produced from it was low in bulk and had a very soft feel. Thereafter the yarn had a boiling-induced shrinkage of The dyed and knitted yarn produced a flat-bulk, soft and smooth textile material. Following the procedure of Example 7, a mixed spun material with the same composition was produced and processed into a tow in the same way as in Example 4.

The ribbon weight amounted to The directly processed sliver had a boiling-induced yarn shrinkage of A knitted article produced from the dyed yarn had a soft feel, average bulk and a much clearer stitch pattern than a reference piece. The tow thus produced was processed in a Turbostapler with the same setting as in Example 7. The yarn produced from the Turbo sliver had a boiling-induced shrinkage of Dyeing produced a bulky, pearly-looking yarn. The knitted article produced from that yarn had as smooth a surface as a reference piece.

A fine twine.

Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres , suitable for use in the production of textiles , sewing , crocheting , knitting , weaving , embroidery , or ropemaking. Modern manufactured sewing threads may be finished with wax or other lubricants to withstand the stresses involved in sewing. Yarn can be made from a number of natural or synthetic fibers. Many types of yarn are made differently though.

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The processes normally comprise the steps of heating the fibers to soften them, treating to induce the desired type of deformation, and cooling them in the deformed state prior to taking them up on packages for storage or shipment. Alternatively, the fibers may be softened by heat while being held in the deformed state. Also, it has been known and practiced in the fiber industry to combine two or more manufacturing operations on the same machine for various reasons, e. Thus, it has been known and practiced to melt spin synthetic fibers and draw them in a continuous manner on a combined spinning and drawing machine, as opposed to spinning the fibers, taking them up on a package, transferring the package to a draw frame, and drawing in a discrete operation. Other examples are drawing combined with twisting on draw twisters and drawing combined with texturing on draw texturizing machines.

Fiber production

It was in on the basis of R. The trade mark of the first commercial rayon carbon fiber was "Thornel". The same time similar technology appeared in the USSR. Our company started to manufacture carbon fibers more than 30 years ago: test-facility where were only several batch type furnaces. In the beginning of s large shop was erected to produce carbon fabrics for defense. Later it was reorganized to an independent company department and it was equipped with the state-of-the-art production line. Today we have the world largest rayon filament based carbon fiber capacity. And in the same time we produce rayon technical yarn— it is a precursor for carbon fibers.


Yarn consists of several strands of material twisted together. Each strand is, in turn, made of fibers, all shorter than the piece of yarn that they form. These short fibers are spun into longer filaments to make the yarn. Long continuous strands may only require additional twisting to make them into yarns.

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Britannica Year in Review

D N50 US. This invention relates to a method for producing specific bulky yarns developing no bulkiness in the course of ordinary dyeing operations. More particularly, the invention pertains to a process for preparing said bulky yarns, characterized by using a high shrinking fiber which scarcely shrinks even in the course of dyeing operations carried out by use of hot water at about C.

Offering protection against wind and weather, strong and stretchy, skin-friendly and easy-care, ecological, economical and of a high quality — in the areas of hygiene articles, medical products, clothing, home textiles and automotive interiors, people are having the highest demands on modern man-made fibres. Our spin finishes and components are specially adapted to the processes used in the production of man-made fibres and nonwovens, thereby ensuring that they run smoothly. This is quality with every fibre. Spin finishes are formulations of lubricants, emulsifiers and antistatic agents. After the extrusion of man-made fibres they are applied undiluted or as an emulsion to the fibres or filaments in order to enable a trouble-free manufacturing process.

Yarn Manufacturing

We have been manufacturing fibers from the renewable raw material wood for about 80 years. We have also secured a leadership position in the 21st century thanks to a passion for our products and technological know-how. We have adapted it to the ecological demands of the 21st century by achieving high recovery rates for chemicals. On the other hand, we implement the most advanced closed-loop lyocell production process. The pulp has to be converted and matured, then further complicated chemical processing steps follow. Finally a honey-like mass is formed which is pressed through micro-fine nozzles and the fibers are spun. They are subsequently treated several times and washed, stretched, cut and dried.

Synthetic Fiber Manufacturing Industry in the US - Market Research Report are affected by changes in consumer spending and industrial production. LLC, Rayonier Advanced Materials Inc. and Eastman Chemical Company. This industry does not include fiber, yarn or thread mills, thread manufacturers of any other.

Yarns can be described as single, or one-ply; ply, plied, or folded; or as cord, including cable and hawser types. Single , or one-ply, yarns are single strands composed of fibres held together by at least a small amount of twist; or of filaments grouped together either with or without twist; or of narrow strips of material; or of single man-made filaments extruded in sufficient thickness for use alone as yarn monofilaments. Single yarns of the spun type, composed of many short fibres, require twist to hold them together and may be made with either S-twist or Z-twist. Single yarns are used to make the greatest variety of fabrics. Ply, plied, or folded, yarns are composed of two or more single yarns twisted together.

US3439393A - Method for producing bulky yarns - Google Patents

Synthetic fibers of acrylonitrile polymers are widely used because they embody a number of outstanding properties, one of the more important of which is their wool-like character. Various methods of producing yarn have been adopted with a view to providing textile articles of these fibres with the bulk and feel of wool. For example, if shrinkable and fully shrunk staple fibres are spun together and the yarn is subjected to a shrinkage-initiating treatment by dyeing or steaming, the yarn "bulks up" through shrinkage of the shrinkable staple fibre and acquires a bulky, wool-like feel.

Filed Dec. Many attempts have been made to develop a synthetic textile yarn which would simulate the desirable quality attributes of wool. It has recently been noted that a yarn spun from a mixture of staple fibers, one component of which possessed a helical crimp or the potential to become helically crimped when heated and relaxed, and the other component of which was a relatively straight staple fiber, possessed many of the qualities of a wool yarn.

Yarn Manufacturing.

The linters go through additional processing steps before being made into a wide variety of products ranging from mattress stuffing to photographic film. The process by which loose, hairy and projecting fibers are removed is called Singeing. Scouring: The sheared skin with hair is thoroughly washed in tanks to remove grease, dust and dirt. All processing steps in a dyeing and finishing plant and in an apparel manufacturing operation affect the dimensions of a product.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. By continuing to visit this site without changing your settings, you are accepting our use of cookies. The industry is exposed to the following threats and opportunities:. IBISWorld reports on thousands of industries around the world. Our clients rely on our information and data to stay up-to-date on industry trends across all industries. With this IBISWorld Industry Research Report on , you can expect thoroughly researched, reliable and current information that will help you to make faster, better business decisions. Toggle navigation.

The demand in blending applications and weak supply of substitutes, like wool and cotton, are the major factors driving the growth of the market studied. On the flipside, availability of cheaper substitutes, like polyester, is expected to hinder the market growth. Delivered in hrs of purchase. Any employee of your organization or its subsidiaries can access the report.

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  1. Keshura

    Only dare once again to make it!