Manufacturing marine boilers, auxiliary mechanisms, shaft shafts, propulsion systems, electrical equ
West, Jr. Technical bhn brinnel hardness number bhp brake horsepower bmep brake mean effective pressure cc cubic centimeter fps feet per second gpm gallons per minute HP high pressure hp horsepower kg- — kilogram lb pound lb in pound inch LP low pressure mg milligram mm millimeter ppm part per million psi pounds per square inch psia pounds per square inch absolute psig pounds per square inch gauge Reference J journal n number p page pp pages PROC proceedings Pt -— part Rev revision Suppl supplement TRANS transactions v volume v. At the outset, it was realized that the topic, Low Maintenance Ship Propulsion Plants, could cover a broad range of material. In fact, it can be argued that almost any development aimed at producing an improvement in ship's machinery can be construed as tending to reduce maintenance. The subject could be interpreted to include such items as refinements in the theory of lubrication or even a discussion of quantum mechanics.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: scitech-expert.com4
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Types Of Propulsion
West, Jr. Technical bhn brinnel hardness number bhp brake horsepower bmep brake mean effective pressure cc cubic centimeter fps feet per second gpm gallons per minute HP high pressure hp horsepower kg- — kilogram lb pound lb in pound inch LP low pressure mg milligram mm millimeter ppm part per million psi pounds per square inch psia pounds per square inch absolute psig pounds per square inch gauge Reference J journal n number p page pp pages PROC proceedings Pt -— part Rev revision Suppl supplement TRANS transactions v volume v.
At the outset, it was realized that the topic, Low Maintenance Ship Propulsion Plants, could cover a broad range of material. In fact, it can be argued that almost any development aimed at producing an improvement in ship's machinery can be construed as tending to reduce maintenance. The subject could be interpreted to include such items as refinements in the theory of lubrication or even a discussion of quantum mechanics.
The authors believed, however, that the subject would have to be limited to the more direct aspects of the problem, Any paper which discussed maintenance of ship's propulsion plants was automatically considered.
The second criteria which was used was to consider those publications which discussed a problem and also proposed a solution, In both cases, the proposal had to lead to an improved plant or reduced maintenance. A few papers have been included which were considered to be idea stimulators and did not fit in either of the above categories, The bibliography which follows was thus strongly influenced by the authors' judgment of the various publications. The most difficult problem was deciding on those papers to include since there were many more papers than could be read in the time alloted.
Different authors would undoubtedly have included some papers which were rejected and rejected others that are included, In the beginning, this was to be a "complete" bibliography.
As the investigation progressed, it was found that there was more material in The University of Michigan libraries than could be read in the time available. Therefore, no attempt was made to survey libraries outside Ann Arboro After surveying the literature for three months, one fact is obvious.
The over-all problem of reducing ship propulsion plant maintenance has received little consideration. Most of the papers included in the present bibliography are concerned with specific problems and equipment. Few of them consider the over-all problem of reducing maintenanceo Indexes, such as The Engineering Index, were surveyed back through Selected publications, such as The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers Transactions, were surveyed through Occasional papers older than are listed.
In general, it was not productive to consider material prior to The bibliography is arranged in three parts0 The first part contains the abstracts of the articles which the authors read and considered to be germain to the subject. The second part contains a list of the articles which were read and considered to have little value relative to low maintenance ship's machinery. The final part contains a list of titles which may have value but were not read because of lack of time, The annotated bibliography is arranged by subjecto Under each subject, the papers are arranged by date the latest paper first.
All the undated papers in any one year or category come at the end of that year or category0 The subject classification, in many cases, is arbitrary since some papers could fit equally well under two headingso The rejected and unread papers have been listed chronologically without regard for subject. Butler and H. Welded tubes are susceptible to deep pitting and perforation, particularly in the weld region.
The corrosion of mild-steel tubes is reduced by chromizing or phosphating. Possible reasons for extended life are discussed. Alexander, R. Fielder, P. Jackson, E. Raask, T. Basic additives used: magnesium carbonate, proprietary additive, and zinc. All three additives reduced the concentration of sulphur trioxide in the flue gas at the inlet and outlet of the air heater compared with the noadditive test. Magnesium carbonate was slightly more effective despite the considerably higher sulphur content of the fuel.
All oil-fired boilers should be operated with the minimum practicable amount of excess air, to suppress the formation of sulphur trioxide. The article describes A. It is claimed that this new design, especially using steam-assisted atomization, minimizes boiler maintenance. Ulmer, E. Partridge, I. Additional and divergent views are included. This is only broadly applicable to ships since it is directed at utility problems o 5. Reference is made to design -5 -. Ulmer and V. A discussion covers factors of water treatment and boiler operation which influence tube failures.
This is a general discussion which offers little in terms of quantitative data, 7o "Supercharger for Pressure Fired Boiler " R. Reisweber, J. In contrast with aircraft gas turbine practice, a boiler supercharger is designed with the emphasis on long life and accessibility for maintenance in line with usual marine requirementso Avoidance of serious blade vibration due to rotating stall was an important consideration, so a bleed off after the fourth stage was provided to increase flow through the inlet stages at low speedso The first four stationary blade rows were made adjustable so that stall patterns could be altered by changing angles.
Armacost; ASME TRANS, v 76, , pp o From the standpoint of circulation, there are two general types of boilers in operation: 1 natural circulation, 2 controlled circulation based on the use of a pump to distribute and circulate the water through the heat-absorption areas. This paper deals with the development, preferred designs, operating features, and low maintenance of controlled-circulation boilers, 9, "Noninteracting Controller for Steam-Generating Systems," K.
This article reviews the boiler analysis and then goes beyond it, revealing the-design of a noninteracting controller to improve boiler performance by limiting unwanted excursions of variables, Experimental studies on economizer and air heater corrosion resulting from formation of sulphuric acid in residual oil fired boilers are described. Nickel, iron, sodium, and vanadium in the fuel each decreased the corrosion normally experienced by the test specimen.
Available from OTS and Depository libraries, A bibliography is presented of 89 references to report literature on stress, crevice, galvanic, and uniform corrosion of stainless and carbon steel in high temperature boiler water.
Anderson and F. Sulphur-trioxide formation and the effect of fuel ash on low-temperature corrosion are discussed. Nickel, iron, sodium, or vanadium present in the oil tend to decrease corrosion by the reductive effect.
Iron tends to increase corrosion due to formation of catalytically active surfaces. Mixtures of sodium oxide and vanadium pentoxide decrease corrosion. Dalbke and J. When deaerating heaters are operated properly, they eliminate oxygen and uncombined CO from boiler feedwater. Potential CO2 in steam condensate can be minimized by lime softening, lime-soda ash treatment, and zeolite softening.
Morpholine is the best neutralizer for closed systems, Film-forming inhibitors and filming amines prevent attack by both C02 and dissolved oxygen. As a corrosion preventive measure for the air-leakage problem, the use of packless control valves for steam-heated process equipment is desirable.
The use of welded or brazed joints is recommended as a corrosion-control measure. Proper design can correct impingement effect. Firing speeds, good start-up procedure effects on superheater design, superheater drains, and nondrainable superheaters are discussed.
Where silicates dominate scale composition, usual acid cleaning is virtually uselessO Repeated chipping or turbining is the only recourse, For internal conditioning, alkaline phosphate-organic type treatment may be used, Magnesium hydroxide is an excellent silica absorbant, Hot lime-soda, filtering mediums, and demineralization are also discussed, F Whirl; ASME, paper n A The paper considers chemical conditioning in this light, stressing advantages and limitations of the co-ordinated phosphate-pH control method of boiler water conditioning.
Considered also is the use of auxiliary chemicals such as sulfite, hydrazine, alkalizing amines and ammonia, and the numerous design and operation factors involved in evaluation of any boiler-water treatment method, Hydrazine-treated boiler feedwater appears to be a big step forward in the search for the ideal treatment which would produce feedwater of slight alkalinity, zero-dissolved solids, and complete absence of free oxygen.
Hydrazine should play an important part in further reducing scale deposit and corrosion, thereby cutting downtime, C02 in the flue gas, if increased, decreases the dew-point temperature, which in turn reduces fouling. A new nozzle design for boiler cleaning is described. For steam blowing, stellited seating surfaces for integral blower valves give greater assurance of tight valves and lower maintenance cost.
To prevent ramming of the condensed steam against the blower steam packing, steam supply piping is sectionalized. Electric soot-blower and control system is better than air system on the basis of low maintenance. Complementing external water conditioning, the internal treatment by sodium-base salts and blowdown keeps scale and mud off internal surfaces and protects boiler metal against corrosion and embrittlement.
Swift; POWER, v , n 5, May, , p 88, Chlorination, softening, distillation, and cation-anion exchange complete the external treatment for boiler watero Details on when these processes are used and how they operate are given. Solubility is the key to scale sludge problems, Protection comes from changing scale-forming salts into sludges that are easily blown down before these salts saturate the water.
Morpholine is relatively stable at boiler pressures up to psi and steam temperatures up to Fo The amount of breakdown of morpholine to ammonia increases quite slowly and uniformly up to F, the highest temperature tested. Of all the materials tested, morpholine most nearly fulfills the requirements for an ideal, volatile, alkaline material. Harshman and E. The physical and chemical properties of hydrazine are discussed, particularly as they relate to its use for scavenging dissolved oxygen in boiler feedwater.
The amount of hydrazine to use, the methods of application, and the methods of control of dosage are described. The results of use of hydrazine for boiler-feedwater treatment in several central power stations are summarized. Kaufman, W. Trautman, W, R. Examples of aggressive action drawn from field experience are explored by metallographic study of damaged specimens.
It is concluded that the power of bonded oxygen of water to react with steel can be curbed by making both chemical and physical changes in boiler systems, Huge and E, C. Furthermore, dolomite will reduce the quantity of ash depositing in the air heater and the amount of work necessary to keep these surfaces clean, Boiler failures are divided into two groups, careless operation and service defects due to mechanical and chemical attack, or overheating, Different causes are studied and cures given for boiler failures such as boiler explosion and collapse due to low water conditions, boiler failure by corrosion fatigue, explosion of boiler tubes, breakdown and explosion of economizers, explosion from steam and feed piping, and boiler-flue-gas explosion.
December, , The Thermco system aims to remove the dissolved oxygen and CO2 from the feedwater inside the boiler but not in the water space, Among the advantages claimed are reduction of hard scale due to removal of the dissolved gases, relief of thermal stresses in the boiler due to delivering the feed on the surface of the water, and less likelihood of damage due to any oil carried by the feed being deposited on the heating surface "Reduction of Condensate-Line Corrosion," S Jensen and E Ro Lang; ASME TRANS, v 76, , pp o Feed of cylohexylamine once a day provided better protection to both iron and copper alloys than was afforded by the ammonia naturally present in the system0 Continuous feed of cylohexylamine along with sodium sulphite at the condensate pump discharge still further reduced the iron and copper content of the condensate and of the boiler feedwatero A low level of 0.
Whirl; ASME TRANS, v 73, , pp o Phosphoric acid is a good solvent for acid-cleaning of boilers0 This solution can be boiled at atmospheric pressure with negligible attack on the boiler metal, thus permitting the solution to be heated and circulated by normal low-level firing of the boiler, These solutions are stable. Boiler surfaces cleaned with phosphoric acid are resistant to rusting.
B, Shannon, C. Pratt, T. B, Webb, W, B. It was realized that the leakage was due to the elastic strain which occurs in the tube holes of highly stressed drums, The elastic deflections, or total "spring" of the joint resulting from expanding operation, must be correspondingly increased to accomodate the increased drum strain. Various suggested methods of achieving this are reviewed.
Boiler embrittlement is nothing but an intermediate stage in a naturally occurring hydrogen purification treatment. On pages , there are references on boiler maintenance and corrosion,
Understanding Different Operational Modes Of Shaft Generator On Ships
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マキタ 10.8V 充電式噴霧器 MUS052DZ（バッテリー別売）【噴霧機·動噴】
This text is provided for research and study only on the understanding that users exercise due care and do not neglect any precaution which may be required by the ordinary practice of seamen or current licensing legislation with respect to its use. No copying is permitted and no liability is accepted resulting from use. A well found vessel has equipment sufficient for the trade and seas that she embarks upon. Modern engineering is very reliable, often incorporating fail safe mechanisms and sophisticated non serviceable components. Licensed installers LPG, electrical, and refrigeration systems may be required by National regulations. However, the Marine Engineer remains on the spot, responsible to ensure that the vessel is ready, and if systems fail, to repair them sufficient to reach a safe haven. A basic understanding of maths and science, including calculation, how heat and pressure change material, how forces stress materials and how momentum and gravity affect motion will assist the reader. Engineers use these principles to understand why machinery works and to interpret the signs and symptoms of malfunction. Reference information can be found in the online dictionary at:.
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Sm shall not exceed f. S1 shall not exceed 1. Sb shall not exceed 1. If leakage of fuel oil is suspected or detected, the following actions must be taken immediately:. Previous Version.
The shaft generator on a ship is an excellent example of a waste heat recovery system , which not only utilizes the waste energy from the engine but also supplies the additional work to the propeller shaft when the main engine is underperforming. The Shaft Generator — Motor circuit breaker is usually closed, if not, an operator can close the circuit breaker via the PMS panel. This command is released if sufficient apparent power is available.
Ge Gas Turbine
Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water. While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting of an electric motor or engine turning a propeller , or less frequently, in pump-jets , an impeller. Marine engineering is the discipline concerned with the engineering design process of marine propulsion systems.
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Marine propulsion systems pdf
Types Of Propulsion. These types of propulsion cylinders are now commonly called Flettner rotors. Like an outboard, there is a drive unit used to steer the boat. The Type 26 air defence, anti-submarine and general purpose frigates will replace the Type 23 and other ships in service with the Royal Navy. The rocket engine is different from these in that the elements of its propulsive jet that is, the fuel and oxidizer are self-contained within the vehicle. Solid-Propellant Rocket. You think you might want to own one of these wonderful airguns but can't understand why Straight Shooters imports so many types when you want just one.
Sharke, P. April 1, Mechanical Engineering. April ; 04 : 42— This article explains features of a ship propulsion motor with superconducting coils that hushes machinery noise and hollows out confined engine rooms.
The Characteristics of Department of Marine E Curriculum of Mechanic A Study of Engineering
Marine Machinery Regulations
Ge Gas Turbine As can be seen in Table 1, these gas turbines are designed to burn a variety of fuels and combinations thereof. Used gas turbine power plant for sale, advantage price. GE Power said Mytilineos S. Our gas turbine upgrade solutions can boost performance and reliability, deliver better efficiency and flexibility, and extend asset life.
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Fire Control Systems
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