Manufacture commercial equipment for transmission systems of general communication lines
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant , to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network. This is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, which is typically referred to as electric power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is part of electricity delivery , known as the " power grid " in North America , or just "the grid". A wide area synchronous grid , also known as an "interconnection" in North America, directly connects many generators delivering AC power with the same relative frequency to many consumers. In Europe one large grid connects most of continental Europe.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Automatic Transmission, How it works ?
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What is 5G? The business guide to next-generation wireless technology
It extends the scope of traditional control systems to include all automation functions within a single operations and engineering environment.
Actuator: In electrical engineering, the term actuator refers to a mechanism that causes a device to be turned on or off, adjusted or moved, usually in response to an electrical signal. In some literature the terms actor or effector are also used. Actuators enable computers to control complex manufacturing processes without human intervention or supervision. Advanced process control APC : In general terms, advanced process control refers to large-scale computer systems that are used to monitor and control processing plants such as cement factories or oil refineries.
The systems extend traditional process control, which is used to monitor and control individual processes, by evaluating and controlling multiple processes across the plant.
By monitoring multiple processes, APC systems can optimize operations for multiple parameters, evaluating the impact each adjustment will have on neighboring operations by referencing current and historical data.
Air-insulated switchgear: see Switchgear. Algorithm: A set of mathematical instructions or procedures for carrying out a specific task such as defining the steps taken by an automation system.
Alternating current AC : Alternating current is a form of electricity in which the current alternates in direction and the voltage alternates in polarity at a frequency defined by the generator usually between 50 and 60 times per second, ie, 50 - 60 hertz. AC was adopted for power transmission in the early days of electricity supply because it had two major advantages over direct current DC : its voltage could be stepped up or down according to need using transformers see Transformer , and it could be interrupted more easily than DC.
Neither advantage is as relevant today as it once was because power electronics can solve both issues for DC. See also Direct current and Transmission and distribution. Alternator: see Generator. Ampere: The standard unit of electrical current.
See also Current. Arc flash: An arc flash is caused by current flowing between two conducting surfaces and most commonly occurs in switchgear as a result of faulty equipment or poor work practices. Left unchecked, arc flashes release a tremendous amount of energy in a high-pressure blast of heat and debris, which can result in serious injuries to workers and damage to equipment. Arc welding: A group of welding procedures that fuse metal pieces by melting them together, using heat from an electric arc between an electrode and the work piece.
The arc is caused by electrical current flowing though plasma consisting of ionized air molecules and metal ions. Material from the electrode is transferred to the work piece, and the electrode is consumed over time. Arc-welding processes are attractive because of their low capital and running costs. Arc-welding cell: The area of a factory set up to weld metals using electric arcs. This technology enables one click navigation, efficient engineering and presentation of the right information in the right context to the right user.
Different aspects enable every user to zoom in on the information they are interested in without having to cut through obstructive clutter to get to it. Asset management: Also referred to as industrial and plant asset management. Asset management systems collect and manage data on the condition and availability of major plant equipment in discrete and process manufacturing plants.
This enables plant operators to plan maintenance schedules more effectively condition-based maintenance , avoiding both unnecessary equipment inspections and unexpected breakdowns, which can cause expensive interruptions in production time. Computerized asset management systems gather data in real-time to ensure maximum production uptime and throughput, with a minimum of human interaction. Asynchronous machines: See Machines Azipod: The registered trademark of a family of modular electric propulsion systems for ships, the first of which was co-developed by ABB in the s.
Since these functions are no longer installed as separate units inside the ship, space onboard can be used for other purposes. Azipod units also contribute to improved hydrodynamics, which result in fuel savings of around 15 percent compared to conventional propulsion systems. Back to the top. Such connections are able to link independent power grids, including those operating at different frequencies, and enable power to flow from one grid to another.
This means that generators on either grid can be used to secure the supply of electricity across the extended network. The connections can also improve voltage and frequency stability in the linked grids.
Bandwidth: 1. In computing, bandwidth is often a synonym for the rate of information transmitted by a network connection or interface.
A bit is the smallest unit of computerized data, comprising a single binary digit ie, 1 or 0. Bandwidth in electronic communication is the difference between the highest- and the lowest-frequency signal in a given transmission medium.
It is measured in hertz Hz. Barge: In the oil and gas industry, a barge is an unpowered multipurpose marine vessel. Barges are used as cargo tankers, equipment and supply carriers, crane platforms and support and accommodation bases in offshore drilling, and as submarine pipe-laying vessels.
Base-load power plant: To maintain power supplies as efficiently as possible, some power stations run near to full capacity all the time, while others are brought online or increase production temporarily to meet transient peaks in demand for electricity.
Biofuel: Fuel derived from biomass, ie, recently living organisms. This does not include fossil fuels such as coal and oil, which are derived from ancient organisms. Bioethanol, a fuel derived from sugar cane, corn and similar materials is an example of a biofuel. See also Carbon cycle. Blackout: A complete loss of power resulting from damage or equipment failure in a power station, power lines or other parts of the power system.
A blackout may also be referred to as a power outage or power failure. Black-start capability: The ability of a power system a generator or grid subsection to restart after a blackout, independently of the larger grid, by using local generators.
For example, HVDC Light transmission systems can be fitted with small diesel generators to provide auxiliary power that can be operational almost immediately in the event of a blackout. This power enables voltage control to be established and normal operations to be resumed quickly.
Brownout: A dip in the voltage level of a power system, which can damage electrical equipment or cause it to under perform, eg, lights dim. See Voltage drop. Busbar: An electrical conductor that makes a common connection between several circuits. Sometimes, electrical wire cannot accommodate high-current applications, and electricity must be conducted using a more substantial busbar — a thick bar of solid metal usually copper or aluminum.
Busbars are uninsulated, but are physically supported by insulators. They are used in electrical substations to connect incoming and outgoing transmission lines and transformers; in a power plant to connect the generator and the main transformers; in industry, to feed large amounts of electricity to equipment used in the aluminum smelting process, for example, or to distribute electricity in large buildings Bushing: A bushing is a cyclindrical insulating component, usually made of ceramic, that houses a conductor.
It enables a conductor to pass through a grounded enclosure, such as a transformer tank the physical shell of a transformer , a wall or other physical barrier, to connect electrical installations. Capacitance : The ability of a device to store an electrical charge electrical charge is what flows in electric current. Capacitance is used in many different applications. See Capacitor. The unit of capacitance is the Farad, though it can also be referred to in Coulombs per volt Coulomb being the standard unit of electrical charge.
Capacitor also referred to as a condenser : A multi-purpose device that can store electrical charge in the form of an electric field. It is used, for example, for power factor correction in inductive AC circuits. Capacitors are used to buffer electricity smooth out peaks and to guard against momentary voltage losses in circuits when changing batteries, for example.
See also Capacitance. Capacitor bank: A number of capacitors connected in parallel. See also Parallel. Carbon cycle: The circulation of carbon through its various forms in the environment. Briefly, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is fixed ie, converted into solid matter by the process of photosynthesis in plants and green algae. These then die and rot under the influence of bacteria and fungi or are consumed by higher organisms in the form of food or fuel burning plant matter or fossil fuels.
Either way, carbon is released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide and is available again for fixation ie, incorporation into biomass. Cascading power failure: A cascade happens when a part of the power grid fails, and shifts its power load to other elements in the grid. Overloaded, these elements also begin to shut down and shift their power load onto other elements, and so on.
Charging station: An installation at which an electric vehicle can be plugged into the grid to charge its battery. There are several types of charging station, including low-voltage, lower current installations that charge a battery over a period of several hours for use in homes, for example , and higher-voltage, higher current fast-charging stations for a more rapid service in public places car parks, public buildings, etc.
CHP: Combined heat and power, an acronym for the co-generation of heat and power. See Co-generation. Circuit breaker: Devices that interrupt high currents to protect electrical equipment from damage caused by current surges, eg, from a short circuit or a lightning strike. On a much smaller scale, they are used as an alternative to fuses in the home. Circuit breakers are typically classified according to the medium they use to inhibit arc formation between the open contacts of the breaker. Media used include air, sulfur hexafluoride gas, oil and a vacuum.
Closed Control System CCS : This is a system used to regulate a process using feedback control as opposed to an open control system, which relies on feed forward control.
A closed system responds to actual system conditions with a range of responses. It is slower to react to changes in process conditions than an open system, but it is more specific in its responses and is able to deal with a broader range of conditions.
An example of closed loop control is a driver steering a car. If the car veers to the left, the driver steers right to compensate. Co-generation: A particularly efficient method of electricity generation that diverts heat, produced as a by-product of the power generation process, to domestic and industrial heating systems.
The heat is produced by combustion of fuel in the power station to create the steam that drives the generating turbines. It would otherwise be released to the atmosphere.
Collaborative production management CPM : A method of unifying disparate yet interdependent production systems in order to optimize productivity. Computerized CPM solutions are software applications that enable process manufacturers to plan, track, analyze and direct their operations. Combined-cycle power plant: conventional thermal power stations produce steam to drive turbines that generate electricity.
In a combined cycle plant, two turbines are used. The first is driven by oil or gas, and waste heat from that process contributes to the production of steam to drive the second turbine Combiners: Also called junction box or combiner box. Through this combiner, individual DC circuits from photovoltaic modules are combined into a single output. A combiner might include disconnect devices, overcurrent devices and remote monitoring devices.
Different Types of Communication Systems
The telecommunication sector is made up of companies that make communication possible on a global scale, whether it is through the phone or the Internet, through airwaves or cables, through wires or wirelessly. These companies created the infrastructure that allows data in words, voice, audio or video to be sent anywhere in the world. The largest companies in the sector are telephone both wired and wireless operators, satellite companies, cable companies, and internet service providers. Not long ago, the telecommunications sector consisted of a club of big national and regional operators.
It focuses on power transmission, distribution and power-plant automation serves electric, gas and water utilities, as well as industrial and commercial customers. ABB also delivers automation systems that measure, control, protect and optimize plant applications across a range of industries. It successfully integrated subsidiary companies and , employees operating in countries. Based in Atlanta, Georgia, GE Energy works in all areas of the energy industry including coal, oil, natural gas and nuclear energy; renewable resources such as water, wind, solar and biogas; and other alternative fuels. Jyoti Structures Ltd. Main business focus areas are Transmission Lines, Substations and Distribution Projects on a global scale; offering a complete range of services in Design, Testing, Manufacturing, Sourcing, Supply and Construction with in-house expertise. JSL is one of the few EPC service providers worldwide, which possess the capabilities to execute turnkey projects covering the entire gamut of Power Transmission business.
What is 5G? The business guide to next-generation wireless technology
Tower Materials. A Totem Pole for Your Home? The tower sections can be guyed, but can also be used in bracketed and self-supporting applications. Plan to have a side of the pole barn with no of few windows against the wind to create a wind block. If you are using a wireless amplifier or radio it is best to position it as close to the antenna as possible without putting too much stress on the connecting cables.
A thought kept in the brain is of no use unless and until it is shared with other individuals and rest of the world. The idea, no matter however brilliant it is, must come out for its successful implementation for it to benefit one and all. It is the prime responsibility of the individual to share his thoughts and ideas with others. The communication system enables the successful transmission of idea or any other important information among individuals.
Gearbox Companies. Good Gear Mitigates Bad Weather The Outdoor Gear Store specializes in high quality lightweight backpacking equipment, ultralight hiking essentials, and in general, excellent outdoor gear from time-proven manufacturers as well as promising new gear companies. Here at Black Rock Gear quality is our top priority. Use these gear ratio calculators to custom tailor Richmond Gear products to your vehicle.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Growing loads and aging equipment are stressing the system and increasing the risk of widespread blackouts. Modern society depends on reliable and economic delivery of electricity. Moreover, effective and significant utilization of intermittent renewable generation located away from major load centers cannot be accomplished without significant additions to the transmission system. In addition, distribution systems often are incompatible with demand-side options that might otherwise be economical.
What Is the Telecommunications Sector?
Chapter 7. Telecommunications, the Internet, and Information System Architecture. The electronic transmission of information over distances, called telecommunications, has become virtually inseparable from computers: Computers and telecommunications create value together. Components of a Telecommunications Network. Telecommunications are the means of electronic transmission of information over distances. The information may be in the form of voice telephone calls, data, text, images, or video.
Product Manager Network Modernization PdM NetMod establishes a network backbone that provides the full range of data, voice and video communications to battalion and above echelons using satellite and line-of-sight communications nodes that set up at-the-quick-halt to successfully meet operational requirements. The HCLOS is a very versatile and stable piece of equipment that helps the Brigade with communications and the accomplishment of the overall mission. BVTC-II is faster with enhanced video and audio codecs that utilize less bandwidth with increased performance. BVTC-II is lighter with a more modular design and more consideration to the weight of its components.
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The term wireless refers to the communication or transmission of information over a distance without requiring wires, cables or any other electrical conductors. Wireless communication is one of the important mediums of transmission of data or information to other devices. The Communication is set and the information is transmitted through the air, without requiring any cables, by using electromagnetic waves like radio frequencies, infrared, satellite, etc. At the end of the 19th century, the first wireless communication systems were introduced and the technology has significantly been developed over the intervening and subsequent years.
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