Manufactory ware devices peripheral computing complexes and electronic digital machines
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The computer technology that allows us to develop three-dimensional virtual environments VEs consists of both hardware and software. The current popular, technical, and scientific interest in VEs is inspired, in large part, by the advent and availability of increasingly powerful and affordable visually oriented, interactive, graphical display systems and techniques. Graphical image generation and display capabilities that were not previously widely available are now found on the desktops of many professionals and are finding their way into the home. The greater affordability and availability of these systems, coupled with more capable, single-person-oriented viewing and control devices e.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Computer Peripheral Devices
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Construction of the first electronic computer began in The device was completed three years later. It was massive, weighing in at 30 tons, eight feet high, three feet deep, one hundred feet in length—and it was slow, taking 35 seconds to pull a square root.
The vast machine received its inputs on punched cards and punched fresh cards to communicate its wisdom. His parents named him Steven. Steve Wozniak would become the best-known of several co-creators of a new category—the personal computer. Wozniak, with Steve Jobs, co-founded Apple Computer in The Apple Computer reached the mass market in It was a tiny device in comparison with its great-grandfather ENIAC, easily fitting on a desktop, and communicating with the user by means of a lighted screen.
Apple Computer began in a garage in Los Altos, California, when the two Steves Wozniak and Jobs began to make circuit boards for hobbyists. Armed with a purchase order for a shipment of that size, Jobs persuaded an electronics distributor to give him parts on credit. The company immediately began to flourish, in part because of Wozniak's creativity in squeezing performance out of a minimum of resources, and in part because of Steven Jobs' inspired notion to call the product Apple, associating a very formidable product category with a playful and down-to-earth image.
The timing was right. Hobbyists everywhere were building home computers. Computers had become so pervasive in the culture that customers, many of them in the computer field, immediately gave these products an intense and enthusiastic reception.
In the year period between the completion of ENIAC and the introduction of the Apple computer, electronic computing was transformed. Tiny transistors had replaced hot, bulky, vacuum tubes. Magnetic media—tapes and magnetic drums—replaced punch cards for data storage. Video devices displaced most printer-based terminals, churning out commands and responses on paper.
Speeds had increased tremendously. In , a fertile year in computers, Gary Starkweather at Xerox invented the laser printer , but it would be years before lasers became standard printers in the office. Control Data introduced the first supercomputer in In the same year the U. In a hierarchy of computers were available, with supercomputers at the peak, intended for scientific work; mainframes serving industry; minicomputers being used in smaller companies; and microcomputers beginning to reach households.
Despite the fact that IBM had invented floppy disks in , and had introduced the first hard-drive in , the first microcomputers used tape recorders for saving information. The personal computer , referred to as the PC, took off dramatically as soon as it was introduced and, within approximately five years, developed into a fully functional office tool. Early models with relatively limited capacities, aimed initially at the recreational and hobbyist markets, improved substantially.
IBM, the undisputed leader in computers, entered the market in with an operating system developed by a small company called Microsoft.
By an estimated 10 million small computers were in use. A PC is a small computer and is capable of rapidly obtaining, manipulating, storing, and calling up information for the user in a changed format if required. For these purposes, it has: 1 a central processing unit CPU , 2 a memory, and 3 input and output ports.
It acquires information and commands through input ports by means of stored data on disk, by keyboard, by mouse movements, and, if the device is so enabled, from any source capable of feeding it digitized information. It communicates through output ports to video terminals, printers, permanent storage disks, sound systems, and other devices capable of receiving digital signals.
The core of the computer is an arrangement made of transistors. All information in the computer is held by capacitors, tiny devices able to hold energy or to release it, to be on or off. Computers are digital devices. Everything is created from 0s and of 1s. Every capacitor needs something to switch it on or off.
Transistors are such switches. For example, the capital letter A has the value of These eight bits of information are treated as one unit, called a byte.
To hold this number eight capacitors and transistors are employed. Indeed, to hold the text of this paragraph, including the spaces that separate the words, 7, transistors and capacitors will be kept busy until this paragraph is saved and the file is closed. The heart of the computer is its CPU. Its control circuitry monitors ports and responds to commands, obtained directly from the keyboard, the mouse, or a stored program it has been asked to execute. The CPU's controls permit it to recognize special interrupts.
When an interrupt arrives, the CPU suspends the execution of the currently running program and picks up execution of another, keeping track of everything in specially set-aside areas of memory. The CPU's communication with the rest of the machine take place via special data highways known as busses.
Three hierarchically arranged instruction sets tell the CPU what to do. A built-in and hard-wired program, known as the kernel, becomes operational as soon as the machine is turned on. This program handles the basic functions, including booting of the operating system OS from the hard drive.
The OS contains the second layer of instructions. It resides in memory. Once up and running, it displays its own visual interface and responds to user commands. The third level is represented by user-activated software programs. One or more programs may be running at any time. These might be, for instance, a word processor, a spreadsheet, and an Internet connection.
In modern PCs functions such as visual display, printing, and disk operations are distinct units with specialized processors of their own so that the CPU's capacity is not diverted to routine tasks. Very advanced functionalities are available to the user wishing to have high-end graphical, audio, or communications capabilities.
These devices are integrated into the computer as cards, which are placed into slots left open for just such add-ons on the computer's motherboard. Computer performance is measured by CPU speed, processor size, and internal memory available.
Speed is measured in cycles per second, thus sequential single actions the CPU can perform in that time. The speed is measured in megahertz MHz , millions of cycles per second.
Computer speeds have increased, making it necessary to report speed in gigahertz GHz , billions of cycles. The faster the processor the more instantaneous the performance of the machine appears to the user. But effective speed also depends on the performance of the computer's bus, of the memory, of the disk drive , and of other componentry that contributes to the computer's total action. A slow memory, for instance, will slow down the CPU by causing it to stop with interrupts until it has performed its job.
The Apple I operated at 1 MHz. High-end PCs in were running at approximately 3, to 3, MHz. The number of bits handled by the CPU processor size determines the number of bits the CPU can handle at the same time.
The first Apple computer could handle an 8-bit number or single byte at a time. The high-end PCs at the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century could handle eight bytes, or bit numbers at a time. Most computers sold were bit machines.
Processor size or width, expressed in bits, is directly related to the amount of memory a CPU is capable of addressing. As a consequence increasing CPU width has resulted in making more and more memory directly available to users without using artful workarounds that characterized earlier machines.
Most modern PCs come with a minimum of megabytes of random-access memory RAM , mega meaning millions, and the unit abbreviated as MB. One megabyte is equivalent to 1,, bytes—a number that, expressed in the base hexadecimal numbers scheme is an even number FA In the computer world, measurements are describe in hex, consequently their translations into the decimal scheme do not round up precisely. For this reason megabytes are equivalent to million bytes.
We can get some feel for this number by expressing it as roughly equivalent to 75 million words separated by spaces. To read that many words we would have to devour roughly 1, moderately sized novels. The first Apple offered 8, bytes of RAM or approximately 1, words of storage, less than one page of single-spaced typing. The personal computer rapidly evolved over a year period from a hobbyist's device and a game-playing utility into—initially—an office machine first used intensively with spreadsheets, for analysis and accounting, and word processing software, for correspondence.
Apple introduced the first commercially available graphical interface with the Macintosh computer in and almost immediately created a new use for computers in visual arts and advertising applications, a niche it continues to dominate.
The graphical interface soon replaced character-mode computing with the introduction of the Windows operating system in Graphical interfaces prepared the ground for widespread use of the Internet. As part of the PC evolution, freestanding machines began to link together.
During the s more office machines were connected by cable into local-area networks all communicating with a common computer that acted as a file server.
With the rise of networks, a single connected PC still only served one user, but the network itself began to resemble the old mainframe computer in that individual users were getting from and storing to the common disk space provided by the server.
These networks made it possible to deploy database software with sufficient storage to duplicate the capabilities once only possessed by mainframes and minicomputers. In when the Macintosh appeared, approximately 1, computers were connected to the system that would later emerge as the Internet. According to Hobbes' Timeline of the Internet, the number of hosts, or connected computers, increased to , by , The emergence of this new technology in the last third of the twentieth century altogether redefined the personal computer.
Without losing the functions that it had acquired along the way—entertainment, office tool, database and graphics engine—it became principally and primarily a communication tool. The basic machine also proliferated into small devices, initially into portable and then laptop computers, and then into handheld personal digital assistants PDAs.
Finally—merging its functions with that of the telephone and TV and thanks to the vast expansion of wireless communications—the machine became a tiny handheld device capable of acting as a computer, a telephone, a radio, a television set, a music server, and a camera. To be sure, these latest tiny descendants of the venerable ENIAC are no longer, properly speaking, personal computers.
That designation still pertains to desktop computers, portables, and laptops. Functionally, however, all of these devices are identical and could not exist without transistors engineered into tiny CPUs with enormous power and speed using information storage media of incredible density.
History of computing hardware
Computers Computer is a machine for performing calculations automatically. An expert at calculation or at operating calculating machines. A machine that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming. Memory and Processing.
The diversity of processes and products within the microelectronics and semiconductor industry is immense. The focus of the occupational health and safety discussion in this chapter centres on semiconductor integrated circuit IC production both in silicon-based products and valence III-V compounds , printed wiring board PWB production, printed circuit board PCB assembly and computer assembly. The industry is composed of numerous major segments. The Electronics Industry Association uses the following delineation in reporting data on pertinent trends, sales and employment within the industry:. Electronic components include electron tubes e.
Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Print version
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Ezra Kirui. The characteristics of computers that makes them an essential part of every technology. A computer is an electronic machine, devised for performing calculations and controlling operations that can be expressed either in logical or numerical terms. In simple terms, a computer is an electronic device that performs diverse operations with the help of instructions to process the information in order to achieve the desired results. Computer application extends to cover huge area including education, industries, government, medicine, scientific research etc. A computer is one of the most influential forces available in modern times.
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A computer is a programmable device that can automatically perform a sequence of calculations or other operations on data once programmed for the task. It can store, retrieve, and process data according to internal instructions. A computer may be either digital, analog, or hybrid, although most in operation today are digital. Digital computers express variables as numbers, usually in the binary system.
Construction of the first electronic computer began in The device was completed three years later. It was massive, weighing in at 30 tons, eight feet high, three feet deep, one hundred feet in length—and it was slow, taking 35 seconds to pull a square root. The vast machine received its inputs on punched cards and punched fresh cards to communicate its wisdom.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Computer- An Electronic Device
Today's world runs on computers. Nearly every aspect of modern life involves computers in some form or fashion. As technology is advancing, the scale of computer use is increasing. Computer users include both corporate companies and individuals. Computers are efficient and reliable; they ease people's onerous jobs through software and applications specific to their needs offering convenience. Moreover, computers allow users to generate correct information quickly, hold the information so it is available at any time.
Hardware Definition Computer
Construction of the first electronic computer began in The device was completed three years later. It was massive, weighing in at 30 tons, eight feet high, three feet deep, one hundred feet in length—and it was slow, taking 35 seconds to pull a square root. The vast machine received its inputs on punched cards and punched fresh cards to communicate its wisdom. His parents named him Steven.
The history of computing hardware covers the developments from early simple devices to aid calculation to modern day computers. Before the 20th century, most calculations were done by humans. Early mechanical tools to help humans with digital calculations, like the abacus , were called "calculating machines", called by proprietary names, or referred to as calculators. The machine operator was called the computer. The first aids to computation were purely mechanical devices which required the operator to set up the initial values of an elementary arithmetic operation, then manipulate the device to obtain the result.
Hardware is the most visible part of any information system: the equipment such as computers, scanners and printers that is used to capture data, transform it and present it to the user as output. Although we will focus mainly on the personal computer PC and the peripheral devices that are commonly used with it, the same principles apply to the complete range of computers:. And we are already moving into the age of wearable computers for medical or security applications, embedded computers in appliances ranging from motor cars to washing machines, and the smart card which will provide identification, banking facilities, medical records and more! Data may enter an information system in a variety of different ways, and the input device that is most appropriate will usually depend on the type of data being entered into the system, how frequently this is done, and who is responsible for the activity.
На коммутатор поступает сообщение. Фонтейн тотчас повернулся к стене-экрану. Пятнадцать секунд спустя экран ожил.
Несколькими быстрыми нажатиями клавиш она вызвала программу, именуемую Экранный замок, которая давала возможность скрыть работу от посторонних глаз.
ORG FROM: ETDOSHISHA. EDU МЕНЯЮЩИЙСЯ ОТКРЫТЫЙ ТЕКСТ ДЕЙСТВУЕТ. ВСЯ ХИТРОСТЬ В МЕНЯЮЩЕЙСЯ ПОСЛЕДОВАТЕЛЬНОСТИ. В это трудно было поверить, но она видела эти строки своими глазами. Электронная почта от Энсея Танкадо, адресованная Грегу Хейлу.
Но это была чужая епархия. В конце концов ей пришлось смириться. Когда они в ту ночь отправились спать, она старалась радоваться с ним вместе, но что-то в глубине души говорило ей: все это кончится плохо.
Она оказалась права, но никогда не подозревала насколько. - Вы заплатили ему десять тысяч долларов? - Она повысила голос.
- Это грязный трюк. - Трюк? - Теперь уже Стратмор не мог скрыть свое раздражение.
Беккер посмотрел на него с недоумением. Панк сплюнул в проход, явно раздраженный невежеством собеседника. - Табу Иуда.