Industrial factory equipment for the production of fiberglass and asbestos filaments
Mazharul Islam Kiron is a textile consultant and researcher on online business promotion. He is working with one European textile machinery company as a country agent. He is also a contributor of Wikipedia. Glass fiber Glass fiber also called fiberglass.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Fiber glass production
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Fiberglass , also called fibreglass and glass fibre , is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass. It is used as a reinforcing agent for many polymer products; the resulting composite material , properly known as fiber-reinforced polymer FRP or glass-reinforced plastic GRP , is called "fiberglass" in popular usage.
Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of fiberglass was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling. In , Edward Drummond Libbey exhibited a dress at the World's Columbian Exposition incorporating glass fibers with the diameter and texture of silk fibers.
This was first worn by the popular stage actress of the time Georgia Cayvan. What is commonly known as "fiberglass" today, however, was invented in by Russell Games Slayter of Owens-Corning as a material to be used as insulation. It is marketed under the trade name Fiberglas, which has become a genericized trademark.
A somewhat similar, but more expensive technology used for applications requiring very high strength and low weight is the use of carbon fiber.
Glass fiber is formed when thin strands of silica -based or other formulation glass is extruded into many fibers with small diameters suitable for textile processing. The technique of heating and drawing glass into fine fibers has been known for millennia; however, the use of these fibers for textile applications is more recent.
Until this time all fiberglass had been manufactured as staple a term used to describe naturally formed clusters or locks of wool fibres. The first commercial production of fiberglass was in When the two companies joined to produce and promote fiberglass, they introduced continuous filament glass fibers. The basis of textile -grade glass fibers is silica , SiO 2.
In its pure form it exists as a polymer , SiO 2 n. If the glass is then cooled quickly, they will be unable to form an ordered structure. These atoms then form a network bonded at the corners by sharing the oxygen atoms. The vitreous and crystalline states of silica glass and quartz have similar energy levels on a molecular basis, also implying that the glassy form is extremely stable. Although pure silica is a perfectly viable glass and glass fiber, it must be worked with at very high temperatures, which is a drawback unless its specific chemical properties are needed.
It is usual to introduce impurities into the glass in the form of other materials to lower its working temperature. These materials also impart various other properties to the glass that may be beneficial in different applications. The first type of glass used for fiber was soda lime glass or A glass. It was not very resistant to alkali. E-glass still makes up most of the fiberglass production in the world.
Its particular components may differ slightly in percentage, but must fall within a specific range. The letter E is used because it was originally for electrical applications.
S-glass is a high-strength formulation for use when tensile strength is the most important property. C-glass was developed to resist attack from chemicals, mostly acids that destroy E-glass. A-glass is an industry term for cullet glass, often bottles, made into fiber. AR-glass is alkali-resistant glass. Most glass fibers have limited solubility in water but are very dependent on pH.
Chloride ions will also attack and dissolve E-glass surfaces. Since E-glass does not really melt, but soften, the softening point is defined as "the temperature at which a 0. Glass fibers are useful because of their high ratio of surface area to weight. However, the increased surface area makes them much more susceptible to chemical attack.
By trapping air within them, blocks of glass fiber make good thermal insulation , with a thermal conductivity of the order of 0. The strength of glass is usually tested and reported for "virgin" or pristine fibers—those that have just been manufactured.
The freshest, thinnest fibers are the strongest because the thinner fibers are more ductile. The more the surface is scratched, the less the resulting tenacity. Moisture is easily adsorbed , and can worsen microscopic cracks and surface defects, and lessen tenacity. In contrast to carbon fiber , glass can undergo more elongation before it breaks. During drawing pulling of the glass to reduce fiber circumference , the viscosity should be relatively low. If it is too high, the fiber will break during drawing.
However, if it is too low, the glass will form droplets rather than drawing out into fiber. Fiberglass has increased in popularity since the discovery that asbestos causes cancer and its subsequent removal from most products.
However, the safety of fiberglass is also being called into question, as research shows that the composition of this material asbestos and fiberglass are both silicate fibers causes similar toxicity as asbestos.
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists , on the other hand, says that there is insufficient evidence, and that fiberglass is in group A4: "Not classifiable as a human carcinogen". Although both fiberglass and asbestos are made from silica filaments, NAIMA claims that asbestos is more dangerous because of its crystalline structure, which causes it to cleave into smaller, more dangerous pieces, citing the U.
Department of Health and Human Services :. A rat study found that the biopersistence of synthetic fibers after one year was 0. Fibers that persisted longer were found to be more carcinogenic. Glass-reinforced plastic GRP is a composite material or fiber-reinforced plastic made of a plastic reinforced by fine glass fibers. Like graphite-reinforced plastic , the composite material is commonly referred to by the name of its reinforcing fibers fiberglass.
Thermosetting plastics are normally used for GRP production—most often unsaturated polyester using 2-butanone peroxide aka MEK peroxide as a catalyst , but vinylester or epoxy are also used. Traditionally, styrene monomer was used as a reactive diluent in the resin formulation giving the resin a characteristic odor.
More recently alternatives have been developed. The glass can be in the form of a chopped strand mat CSM or a woven fabric. As with many other composite materials such as reinforced concrete , the two materials act together, each overcoming the deficits of the other.
Whereas the plastic resins are strong in compressive loading and relatively weak in tensile strength , the glass fibers are very strong in tension but have no strength against compression.
By combining the two materials, GRP becomes a material that resists both compressive and tensile forces well. Uses for regular fiberglass include mats, thermal insulation , electrical insulation ,sound insulation , reinforcement of various materials, tent poles, sound absorption, heat- and corrosion-resistant fabrics, high-strength fabrics, pole vault poles, arrows , bows and crossbows , translucent roofing panels, automobile bodies, hockey sticks , surfboards , boat hulls , and paper honeycomb.
It has been used for medical purposes in casts. Fiberglass is extensively used for making FRP tanks and vessels. Manufacturers of fiberglass insulation can use recycled glass. A recycling program begun in in Kansas City, Kansas , will ship crushed recycled glass, called cullet , to the Owens Corning plant that will use it as raw material for fiberglass making. This page is being imported from Wikipedia, to create a Wikidwelling stub or article. These steps need to be completed:.
Pages with this template. The original article was at Fiberglass. The list of authors can be seen in the history for that page. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. Bundle of fiberglass Fiberglass , also called fibreglass and glass fibre , is material made from extremely fine fibers of glass.
Contents [ show ]. Synthetic vitreous fibers [fiber glass] differ from asbestos in two ways that may provide at least partial explanations for their lower toxicity.
Because most synthetic vitreous fibers are not crystalline like asbestos, they do not split longitudinally to form thinner fibers. They also generally have markedly less biopersistence in biological tissues than asbestos fibers because they can undergo dissolution and transverse breakage. New York: Elsevier Scientific. August Retrieved Fitzer et al..
Synthetic Inorganic". Kothari Manufactured Fibre Technology. London: Chapman and Hall. Technical Approach to Glass. New York: Elsevier. Handbook of Fiberglass and Advanced Plastic Composites. Huntingdon NY: Robert E. Incropera; David P.
De Witt Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer 3rd ed. Rachel's News Environmental Research Foundation. Designing with Plastics. Martin Thompson. Munich: Hanser Publishers, Categories :. Cancel Save. Look up fiberglass in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
The invention relates to the manufacture of mufflers for the exhaust systems of internal combustion engines using flexible fibrous muffler packing material, preferably long or continuous strand fiberglass. Such fiberglass is preliminarily packed into transfer containers or cartridges for shipping, using a discharge apparatus that fluffs and separates individual filaments from multi-filament continuous strands fed from spools. The packing is ejected from the cartridge at the muffler manufacturing site, into a preformed muffler housing, using a piston or pusher with tines extending through the rear of the cartridge. The packing is compressed and confined in the muffler housing by insertion at the end of the piston stroke of an end seal of preformed packing carried in the cartridge.
In order to pass the customs and sell the equipment on the territory of the Customs Union, such equipment will require either a declaration or a certificate TR CU The table below indicates all machines and equipment and their HS codes that are subject to this regulation. Snow and swamp walkers, snowmobiles and trailers for them. Garage equipment for motor vehicles and trailers. Small-scale mechanization tools for gardening and forestry use mechanized, including electric.
It has heretofore been proposed to strengthen clutch facings formed of a strip of material wound in spiral fashion against disruption by centrifugal force by bonding to one face a coextensive metal sheet or fibrous backing layer of felted or woven material. A particular disadvantage of such use of metal sheet is high inertia, requiring greater power to rotate the clutch assembly. Other disadvantages of a metal reinforcing sheet are the difiiculty of obtaining a substantially flat sheet which will meet clutch assembly dimensional tolerances, and increased costs. Although clutch facings reinforced by a fibrous backing layer, as disclosed for example in US. It is an object of this invention to provide novel reinforced clutch facings of the above-described type which can be produced relatively inexpensively, yet have substantially increased bursting strength. Referring to the drawings, the reference numeral indicates a clutch facing according to this invention which comprises a coiled strip 11 comprising a woven fabric having metallic wires 12 associated with at least some of the strands thereof. The several convolutions of the fabric strip 11 are bonded together by a cement composition comprising heat-hardenable resin, vulcanizable elastomer ice and friction material filler with which the strip is impregnated. In FIG. Although not shown, it will be understood that the fabric strip may be longitudinally shaped to provide other deformed cross sections, such as, for example a W-shape, or an arcuate shape. Extending longitudinally of fabric strip 11 are a plural ty of ends 13 of glass yarn.
The making of glass fiber
Glass fiber is made by blending raw materials, melting them in a three-stage furnace, extruding the molten glass through bushings in the bottom of the forehearth, cooling the filaments with water, and then applying a chemical size. The filaments then are gathered and wound into a package. Fiberglass is the original fiber reinforcement of modern composites. Toledo, Ohio , record the key developments that step-changed the industry from producing discontinuous-fiber glass wool to making continuous glass filaments with diameters as small as 4 microns 4 millionths of a meter and thousands of feet long.
Fiberglass refers to a group of products made from individual glass fibers combined into a variety of forms. Glass fibers can be divided into two major groups according to their geometry: continuous fibers used in yarns and textiles, and the discontinuous short fibers used as batts, blankets, or boards for insulation and filtration. Fiberglass can be formed into yarn much like wool or cotton, and woven into fabric which is sometimes used for draperies. Fiberglass textiles are commonly used as a reinforcement material for molded and laminated plastics.
US3526306A - Clutch facing - Google Patents
If you've ever come in contact with fiberglass, you already know what it can do to your skin. The tiny fibers of glass from insulation wool can irritate your skin and eyes. If you experience too much contact with fiberglass, it can cause what's called irritant contact dermatitis , or inflammation of the skin.
Basis Specialty Material Co. It is mainly used for EMI shielding as a filler to make compounding pellets with various resins. Either or both electroless and electro planting process can offer single or dual metal layers onto the surface of carbon fibers according to the requirements. With sales of EUR Business activities are focused on the manufacture of high-tech polymer materials and the development of innovative solutions for products used in many areas of daily life. The main segments served are the automotive, electrical and electronics, construction and the sports and leisure industries.
AMI-GLAS Product Line - Fiberglass Fabric and Industrial Textiles
Account Options Ieiet. Information Circular , Saturs Summary and introduction. Fi g Page. Sales of asbestos in Arizona Southern Rhodesia. Exports of chrysotile from the Union of South Africa by principal countries of destination
Refine your search Locate the companies on a map. Tespe is a highly specialised company and a major player in the manufacture of technical fabrics used in thermal insulation and for high-temperature industrial gaskets. Rope, braid, ribbon, fabric, Contact this company. The plant is a part of
The List of Products with HS Codes Subject to TR CU 010 Certificate and Declaration
Kanerva's Occupational Dermatology pp Cite as. Histopathology of dermatitis is nonspecific unless the fiberglass is itself visualized in the skin biopsy or skin tape stripping. Treatment is nonspecific except for taking measures to curtail exposure to fiberglass and where possible to identify sources of exposure.
The company is organized into four business units, including a joint-venture company and three subsidiaries. Our company, established in , is a national high-tech enterprise. Obtaining dozens of national patents and the B3 Manufacturing License of Pressurized Vessel, CTC adopts the automatic control technology to the manufacturing and test equipment. The company goes in for the technical consultation, promotion of composites raw materials and products.
Only a few studies have investigated non-malignant respiratory effects of glass microfibers and these have provided inconsistent results. Our objective was to assess the effects of exposure to glass microfibers on respiratory and skin symptoms, asthma and lung function. They answered a questionnaire on respiratory health, occupational exposures, and lifestyle factors, and performed spirometry. Measurements of respirable dust were available from and
InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website. This document assists building buyers, owners or inspectors who need to identify asbestos materials or probable-asbestos in buildings by simple visual inspection. We provide photographs of asbestos containing materials and descriptive text of asbestos insulation and other asbestos-containing products to permit identification of definite, probable, or possible asbestos materials in buildings. Asbestos is safe and legal to remain in homes or public buildings as long as the asbestos materials are in good condition and the asbestos can not be released into the air.
Asbestos Yarn is made of white, clean twisted asbestos fibre which have been mechanically twisted to increase tensile strength. It has excellent resistant powers at high temperature. Ready flexibility is an.