Industrial fabrication plant and animal fiber processing products
Reviewed: June 11th Published: August 28th Textile Manufacturing Processes. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability. Man is a friend of fashion in nature. The desire for better garment and apparel resulted in the development of textile fiber production and textile manufacturing process.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Cotton is Processed in Factories - How It’s Made
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Britannica Year in Review
Natural fibers have been used historically to produce our clothes, carpets, cordage, paper, ships sails, and insulation and building materials. The use of natural fibers, both plant, and animal, to meet our needs goes back thousands of years and plays a significant role in history.
In the history of natural fibers, one of the oldest recorded uses of plant fibre for fabrics is the use of hemp which was already being cultivated in China in BC. Like agriculture, textiles have been a fundamental part of human life since the dawn of civilization.
Fragments of cotton articles dated from BC have been excavated in Mexico and Pakistan. According to Chinese tradition, the history of silk begins in the 27 th century BC. Fibres such as jute and coir have been cultivated since antiquity. In the last hundred years or so there has been a turn away from natural fibers towards synthetic materials, mostly derived from petrochemicals.
This change was a result of the technological revolution and the short-term economic advantages of synthetics. The pendulum is once again swinging towards natural fibres and we are now seeing a growing movement away from petrochemical-based fibers back to natural fibers.
There are several reasons for this. Petrochemical based fibre production has undergone continuing rising costs. Synthetic fibres rely on precious non-renewable resources and incur environmental costs in their production. Petrochemical based products pose a health risk in most applications, both from direct exposure and also from secondary exposure through the soil, water, and air pollution.
Natural fibres are produced from either plant, animal or insect sources. Plant sources of fiber include cotton, hemp, pineapple, ramie, sisal, flax, jute, coconut and banana abaca. Animal sources of fiber include sheep, alpaca, llama, goat, and camel, and can be either wool, hair or leather.
Insect fibre is predominantly from silkworm cocoons. The return to natural fibres to meet our fibre needs is only one part of the change that is required if we want to achieve sustainable living. We must also return to traditional methods of production back to chemical free and organic production methods. Cotton is one of the most environmentally expensive fibers to produce.
Cyanide, dicofol, naled, and propargite are commonly used in cotton production and these chemicals are known cancer-causing chemicals. Natural fibers are greatly elongated substances produced by plants and animals that can be spun into filaments, thread or rope.
Woven, knitted, matted or bonded, they form fabrics that are essential to society. While the methods used to make fabrics have changed greatly since then, their functions have changed very little; today, most natural fibers are still used to make clothing and containers and to insulate, soften and decorate our living spaces.
Increasingly, however,. The Banana family Musaceae is one of the plants which provide natural fiber. The genus Musa belongs to the Musaceae, a family of monocotyledons. It contains between species, including the cultivated banana plant and several wild bananas. The Musaceae family of plants is one of the most useful in the world. It provides us with all manner of foods and industrial raw materials.
Musa sapientum, for example, gives us the banana; Musa textiles are a source of the papermaking and cordage fiber abaca or Manila hemp. This vegetable leaf fiber is derived from the Musa textiles plant. The banana plant is indigenous to the Philippine Islands; native islanders were making textiles from its fibres when Magellan visited the islands in during his circumnavigation of the globe.
During the early 19 th century, supplies of banana began to reach the Western world, and its value as a cordage fiber was quickly appreciated. It was better than hemp for many purposes, particularly in marine ropes and hawsers. Despite the many attempts that have been made to establish banana production in other parts of the world, the Philippine Islands remain the chief source of the fiber. In the Philippines, abaca is planted over an area estimated at , hectares. In , the Philippines produced 60, tons of abaca fiber.
Bangladesh also cultivates a huge number of banana plants having all potential to become a major producer of banana fiber. As will be seen later, fiber can also be obtained from the edible banana plant, and there are, moreover, various species of wild banana which produce a fiber that is used for local purposes in various countries. The plant is of great economic importance, being harvested for its fiber, once generally called Manila hemp, extracted from the leaf sheath around the trunk.
On average, the plant grows about 20 feet 6 metres tall. For fiber production, the most important of the Musa species is Musa textiles Nee, from which Abaca fiber, also known as Manila hemp, is obtained.
As Musa textiles are a member of the banana genus, in appearance it closely resembles the banana, and indeed the plants can easily be mistaken for each other. There are one or two differences, however, by which the two plants can be distinguished. Abaca stalks are generally more slender, and the leaves are smaller, narrower, and rather more tapered, than those of the banana plant.
Abaca is extracted from the leaf sheath around the trunk of the abaca plant Musa textiles , a close relative of the banana and native to the Philippines. Each sheath contains a thin layer of fiber. The plant comprises a cluster of sheath-like leaf stalks. Harvesting abaca is very labor-intensive. Each stalk must be cut into strips which are then scraped usually by hand to remove the pulp.
The long white fibres are then washed and dried and baled for transport. For use in blends for the automobile industry, high-quality fiber is spun into yarn, put onto bobbins and exported. The fiber is obtained from the outer layer of the leaf. The Banana plant has long been a source of fiber for high-quality textiles. In Japan, the cultivation of banana for clothing and household dates back to at least the 13 th century. In the Japanese system, leaves and shoots are cut from the plant periodically to ensure softness.
The harvested shoots must first be boiled in lye to prepare the fibres for the making of the yarn. These banana shoots produce fibers of varying degree of softness, yielding yarns and textiles with differing qualities for specific uses. For example, the outermost fibers of the shoots are the coarsest, and are suitable for tablecloths, whereas the softest innermost fibres are desirable for kimono and kamishimo. This traditional Japanese banana cloth making process requires many steps, all performed by hand.
In another system employed in Nepal, the trunk of the banana plant is harvested instead, small pieces of which are subjected to a softening process, mechanical extraction of the fibers, bleaching, and drying. After that, the fibers are sent to the Kathmandu Valley for the making of high-end rugs with a textural quality similar to silk. These banana fiber rugs are woven by the traditional Nepalese hand-knotted methods and are sold RugMark certified.
The fibre is extracted by separating the ribbons of fibre from the layers of pulp. These ribbons, which are known as tuxies, are then drawn under a knife, usually made of metal, and the residual pulp is removed from the fiber, which is then hung up to dry.
Processing occurs when it is separated mechanically decorticated into lengths varying from 3 to 9 feet. They grow in succession, with the oldest growing from the bottom of the trunk and successively younger ones from the top. The sheaths contain the valuable fiber. They are composed primarily of the plant materials such as cellulose, lignin, and pectin. After the fiber has been separated, it is sold under the name Manila, the capital of the Philippines.
The plant is normally grown in well-drained loamy soil, using pieces of mature root planted at the start of the rainy season. Growers harvest Abaca fields every three to eight months after an initial growth period of 25 months and a total lifespan of about 10 years. Harvest generally includes having several operations concerning the leaf sheaths;.
The fibers can then be spun into twines or cordage. In the process of cleaning abaca fiber, the use of coarsely serrated stripping knives and the lack of proper tension on the stripping knife result in the production of coarse low-grade fiber. Delay and carelessness in drying affect both the colour and strength of the fibre. Abaca is very strong and has great luster.
Abaca rope is very durable, flexible and is very resistant to damage from salt water. It is classified as a hard fiber, along with coir, henequen, and sisal. Abaca has good natural luster. Its color depends upon the conditions under which it has been processed; good quality abaca is off-white, whereas some poor quality fiber is nearly black.
Individual fibre cells are cylindrical and smooth —surfaced. The ends taper gradually to a point. In cross-section, the fibers are polygonal and cell walls thin. The lumen is large and distinct; it is round and uniform in diameter although both fiber and lumen show occasional constrictions.
In places, the lumen contains granular bodies. The individual fibers can be freed by boiling the strands of alkali. Abaca fibre is bleached and dyed as per other cellulosic fibers. Today, most abaca is pulped and processed into tea bags, vacuum bags, a casing for sausages, banknotes, cigarette papers and high-quality writing paper. Recently, research engineers patented a novel mixture of polypropylene thermoplastic and abaca yarn for use in automobile components, including external panels.
Once a favored source of rope, abaca shows promise as an energy-saving replacement for glass fibers in automobiles. The fiber was originally used for making twines and ropes as well as the Manila envelope; now most Abaca is pulped and used in a variety of paper—like products including filter paper and bank notes.
It can be used to make handicrafts like bags, carpets, clothing, and furniture. Some of the fine inner fibers from the abaca leaf—stalk is used directly, without spinning, for making delicate, lightweight, yet strong fabrics. These fabrics are used in the Philippines for clothing, and for hats and shoes. Some abaca is used for carpets, table mats, etc. In South India lot of Banana, cultivation is found which has helped the local people to extract fiber from the leaves of the banana plant which is being used in making banana yarn and blended with cotton, and synthetics and various lightweight fabrics are produced.
The hemp fibre industry in Canada is in its early stages of development. A number of fibre separation plants coupled with biocomposite manufacturing lines hempcrete, bioplastic, fibre mats, insulation, etc. Some smaller facilities focused on processing hemp fibre for textile applications are also likely to appear on the Prairies. Each commercial processing plant will be extending specific requirements regarding management of hemp harvest, including straight fibre cutting or post-combine straw, retting, etc.
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Clothing from banana fiber
Many of us tend to believe that natural fibres, being products of nature, are naturally better than their synthetic counterparts. However, this isn't always the case. The production of most natural fibres such as cotton, wool and silk have their fair share of environmental and ethical issues too - it's just that 'natural' is often associated with 'good'. Although the impact on the environment, workers and animals or plants involved in the production varies for each fibre, the impacts nevertheless exist. The production process of non-organic cotton, for instance, is chemical-intense and this extensive use of toxic agents has been linked to severe health problems in farmers who grow it amongst a plethora of other environmental and social atrocities. Cotton is not alone here - every natural fibre has a background story that deserves attention for anyone who has concerns around human and environmental health. Commercial cotton is chemical-intensive. Support farmers' health - go organic - OffsetWarehouse. Join me, as I go into the details of various environmental and ethical issues that are part of the very first stages of production of natural fibres like cotton, wool and silk.
Natural fibre , any hairlike raw material directly obtainable from an animal, vegetable, or mineral source and convertible into nonwoven fabrics such as felt or paper or, after spinning into yarns, into woven cloth. A natural fibre may be further defined as an agglomeration of cells in which the diameter is negligible in comparison with the length. Although nature abounds in fibrous materials, especially cellulosic types such as cotton , wood , grains, and straw , only a small number can be used for textile products or other industrial purposes. Apart from economic considerations, the usefulness of a fibre for commercial purposes is determined by such properties as length, strength, pliability, elasticity, abrasion resistance, absorbency, and various surface properties.
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes.
Mobile processor promises new fiber opportunities for hemp farmers
Photo courtesy of Power Zone Agriculture. If hemp fiber is so strong and easy to grow, why is so much of it moldering in barns awaiting a buyer? HempLogic in Washington state and Power Zone Agriculture in Colorado plan to load mobile decortication machines onto trucks and then take the equipment on a state tour of hemp farms. Making it profitable to turn hemp stalks into usable manufacturing material, a prospect that currently eludes most hemp producers in the United States.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Viscose fiber production line
The linters go through additional processing steps before being made into a wide variety of products ranging from mattress stuffing to photographic film. The process by which loose, hairy and projecting fibers are removed is called Singeing. Scouring: The sheared skin with hair is thoroughly washed in tanks to remove grease, dust and dirt. All processing steps in a dyeing and finishing plant and in an apparel manufacturing operation affect the dimensions of a product. The raw material is obtained from a special variety of wood called spruce.
There are a wide variety of fibers that are used to create yarns that you can use for knitting and crocheting and they come from a variety of sources. Yarns are made from a group of fibers twisted together to form a continuous strand. The fibers used to create these yarns include animal fibers, plant fibers and synthetic fibers. Alpaca fiber is similar to sheep's wool and is another natural, animal fiber. It's harvested from Alpaca's and while similar to sheep's wool, does have different characteristics.
Man-made fibre , fibre whose chemical composition , structure, and properties are significantly modified during the manufacturing process. Man-made fibres are spun and woven into a huge number of consumer and industrial products, including garments such as shirts, scarves, and hosiery; home furnishings such as upholstery, carpets, and drapes; and industrial parts such as tire cord, flame-proof linings, and drive belts. The chemical compounds from which man-made fibres are produced are known as polymers , a class of compounds characterized by long, chainlike molecules of great size and molecular weight. Many of the polymers that constitute man-made fibres are the same as or similar to compounds that make up plastics, rubbers, adhesives, and surface coatings. Indeed, polymers such as regenerated cellulose, polycaprolactam, and polyethylene terephthalate , which have become familiar household materials under the trade names rayon, nylon , and Dacron trademark , respectively, are also made into numerous nonfibre products, ranging from cellophane envelope windows to clear plastic soft-drink bottles.
The fibre processing pilot plant located at the Vegreville facility concentrates on decorticating hemp and flax fibres. This 13, sq. This one of a kind, state of the art facility was built in with funding provided by the Alberta Government.
As with many discoveries of early man, anthropologists believe the use of wool came out of the challenge to survive. In seeking means of protection and warmth, humans in the Neolithic Age wore animal pelts as clothing. Finding the pelts not only warm and comfortable but also durable, they soon began to develop the basic processes and primitive tools for making wool.
Please fill in your details to download the Table of Contents of this report for free. We also do customization of these reports so you can write to us at mi fibre2fashion. Fibre is the starting point of the textile chain. First of all, fibre is obtained from the source, which is then spun into yarn.
Нет. Думаю, англичанка. И с какими-то дикими волосами - красно-бело-синими. Беккер усмехнулся, представив это зрелище. - Может быть, американка? - предположил. - Не думаю, - сказала Росио.
Да вы все спятили. Это за четыреста-то баксов. Я сказал ей, что даю пятьдесят, но она хотела. Ей надо было выкупить билет на самолет - если найдется свободное место перед вылетом.