Plant building knots and elements of wire communication of general application
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Arbor Rigging: Knots, Hitches and "Do Nots"
Work on a black work surface as it helps to find fiber scraps. Wear disposable aprons to minimize fiber particles on your clothing. Always wear safety glasses with side shields and protective gloves. Treat fiber optic splinters the same as you would treat glass splinters. Never look directly into the end of fiber cables until you are positive that there is no light source at the other end. Use a fiber optic power meter to make certain the fiber is dark.
When using an optical tracer or continuity checker, look at the fiber from an angle at least 6 inches away from your eye to determine if the visible light is present.. Only work in well ventilated areas. Contact lens wearers must not handle their lenses until they have thoroughly washed their hands.
Do not touch your eyes while working with fiber optic systems until your hands have been thoroughly washed. Keep all combustible materials safely away from electrical devices including splicers, testers and curing ovens. Put all cut fiber pieces in a properly marked container for disposal.
Thoroughly clean your work area when you are done. Do not smoke while working with fiber optic systems. Keep all food and beverages out of the work area. If fiber particles are ingested they can cause internal hemorrhaging. Even within communications applications, we have applications that differ widely in usage and in methods of installation.
We have "outside plant" fiber optics as used in telephone networks, CATV, metropolitan networks, utilities, etc. We have fiber on "platforms" like cars, planes and ships and the space station.
Since all these applications require different installation procedures, this section will focus on OSP installation in more detail. The Installation After the process of designing fiber optic networks is completed, the next step is to install it. This chapter covers preparing for the installation, requirements for training and safety and then the actual installation process.
Since outside plant fiber optic networks can cover a broad range of installation types using varied components over different types of geography, it is impossible to cover the specifics of any one installation.
The Role of the Contractor in an Installation To begin work on a fiber optic installation, the network owner or user must choose a contractor, perhaps the most important decision in the entire process.
The fiber optic contractor should be able to work with the customer in each installation project through six stages: design, installation, testing, troubleshooting, documentation and restoration.
The contractor must be experienced in fiber optic installations of the type involved and should be able to provide references for similar work.
One should be able to rely the contractor to not only do the installation but to assist in the design of the network and help choose components and vendors. Once the contractor has been given the assignment, they should be able to help the customer with the design, including choosing the right kinds of fibers, cables, connectors and hardware for the installation.
The contractor should know which components meet industry standards to ensure interoperability and what state of the art components will facilitate future expandability.
The experienced contractor also should be able to help in the choice of vendors. Experience with particular product types and vendors will allow the contractor to assist the customer to choose products that make the installation faster and easier and often higher performance and more reliable. Should the customer choose components that are unfamiliar to the contractor, it is important that the contractor know early in the process so they may obtain proper training, often from the manufacturer, as well as any unique tools that may be required.
Generally, the customer is not as familiar with fiber optic technology and practice as an experienced contractor. The contractor may need to discuss certain choices with the customer where they believe alternatives may be better choices. The actual installation process can involve more than just putting in cable, terminating and testing it.
If the contractor is knowledgeable and experienced, the user may ask the contractor to purchase, receive, inspect and bring components to the work site also, which can be another good source of revenue for the contractor. Having full control of the materials process can also make life easier for the contractor, as they have a better chance to keep on schedule rather than depending on a customer who has many other priorities.
Plus, they may have the latitude to choose components they are more familiar with, facilitating the actual installation process. The technicians actually doing the installation should be trained and certified by organizations like The Fiber Optic Association www.
Certification provides a level of confidence that the installation techs are knowledgeable and have the skills needed for the work involved. The final four requirements from the contractor, testing, troubleshooting, documentation and restoration, need to be discussed before the project ever begins.
Every fiber optic project requires insertion loss testing of every link with a light source and power meter or optical loss test set according to industry standards. Some projects, like long outside plant links with splices, may also require OTDR testing. The contractor and customer must agree that testing includes troubleshooting problems and fixing them as well as documenting test results for every link. Likewise, for the contractor, documentation must begin before the project starts so the scope of work is known to everyone and end only when the final test data is entered.
Copies of the documentation, along with excess components left over from the installation, must be presented to the customer to facilitate future network restoration, should it be required.
The Contract The contract for a fiber optic installation should include detailed requirements for the project, spelling out exactly what is to be installed, acceptable test results, and documentation to be provided. All this should be discussed between the customer and the contractor and agreed to in writing.
They are not irrelevant details, as they are important to ensure the customer gets what they expect and the contractor knows what is expected of them when designing the network, estimating costs, doing the actual installation and providing proof of performance in order to show the work is completed and payment should be made. Planning the job is the first task.
Proper planning is important to ensure the job is installed properly, on time and meets cost objectives, so the contractor can make a profit. It is assumed you have a finished design for the project, know where and how everything will be installed and have any special requirements like permits ready.
One can also assume you have a completion date, hopefully a reasonable one, to work toward. The first step then is to create a schedule which will be the centerpiece of the planning process. In order to schedule a job, you need a lot of information, much of which can be acquired from estimates you did when bidding the job.
When buyers price the components to be used on a job, they should get delivery times as well as prices. Some items used on fiber optic projects should be stock items, like connectors, patch panels or splice closures.
Cables, however, may have to be made to order. Many fiber optic cables are custom items, depending on the cable type, number and types of fibers and color coding. Whenever specifying a fiber optic cable, always try to have a few extra fibers available, just in case fibers are damaged during installation.
The astute contractor tries to always use the same types of components on every job so they are familiar with not only the installation procedures but the typical costs, yield i. If any components are not familiar to the installers, they need to learn how to install them correctly, either by experimenting in the office on off-time or getting manufacturers to train them. The need for training may also arise if new equipment types are required, such as outside plant cable placing tools or new types of test equipment.
Buyers need to order the components when the job is acquired, scheduling delivery to the job site either to have everything available before the installation begins, or on a large job with an extended schedule, according to how long the installation of that component will take. Here you also need to plan on where the components will be delivered to, either a staging area in your warehouse, for example, or to the job site.
Components delivered to the job site may require security. Theft can be a problem with cable particularly, since many thieves think all cables contain copper and the price of copper makes cable worth stealing.
But vandalism is another concern, requiring components be either locked up or if too large to put indoors like large spools of cable or fiber optic innerduct, may require on site overnight guards. Next, one needs to schedule labor. Again, the estimates should tell you how many installers of what experience will be needed and how long they are expected to need to complete the installation. If any training is needed, additional time may need to be added to the schedule.
Having covered labor and materials in the schedule, the planning is almost done. Review the schedule with everyone involved to get them on board and start the processes, beginning with acquiring materials. Then add to the plan a review of safety rules for supervisors, installers and anyone expected to be on site.
Also add notes to keep all scrap cable, connectors, etc. If the start date is not tomorrow because the customer wanted it yesterday! Installation Checklist Planning for the installation is a critical phase of any project as it involves coordinating activities of many people and companies. The best way to keep everything straight is to develop a checklist based on the design.
The checklist below is comprehensive but each project will have some of its own unique requirements that need to be added to the list.
After completion of cable plant installation: Inspect workmanship Review test data on cable plant Set up and test communications system Update and complete documentation Update and complete restoration plan Store restoration plan, documentation, components, etc. OSP installs may include installing aerial cable, direct-buried cable, underground cable in conduit or installing conduit or innerduct and then pulling cable, or placing cable underwater. A single link may include several types of installation, for example aerial in one section, pulling in conduit on a bridge crossing and burying the rest of the cable.
Cables may end when pulled into buildings or terminated at the top of poles where surveillance cameras or wireless access points are located. Splices where cables are concatenated can be placed in pedestals, buried underground or hung in aerial splice closures.
The diversity of OSP installation makes it extremely important for the contractor to know the route of the cable to be installed intimately. Like the estimator who should walk the route before beginning the estimating process, the contractor needs to see for themselves the actual situations they are going to encounter. That inspection allows them to determine what problems may be encountered, what special equipment may be needed and even double check that all the permits needed are in order.
Call Before You Dig The old story about the most likely fiber optic communications system failure being caused by "backhoe fade" is not a joke — it happens every day. But it reminds us that digging safely is vitally important. The risk is not just interrupting communications, but the life-threatening risk of digging up high voltage cables or gas lines. There are several services that maintain databases of the location of underground services that must be contacted before any digging occurs, but mapping these should be done during the design phase and double-checked before digging to ensure having the latest data.
At the same time as the cable is installed, markers like these indicating its location and ownership can also be installed. Each used different procedures, tools and even cables.
The process usually begins with digging a trench to bury the conduit which is generally 4 inch plastic pipe, sometimes with pre-installed innerduct also called duct liner with a pulling tape to facilitate the actual cable pulling process.
Directional boring can also be used to avoid digging up the surface, for example in crossing streets or sidewalks. If the conduit and cables are all dielectric, a conductive marker tape may be buried about a foot above the conduit to assist in future cable location and as a warning to anyone digging in the vicinity of the cable.
Due to the disruptive nature of burying conduit, especially under roadways, many governments which grant permits for burying cable require the contractor to install extra conduits along the route to prevent having to dig again for any future cable installations.
Since many cities have extensive conduits already buried for other services or may have required extra conduit to be buried during prior installations, conduit may be available for pulling new fiber optic cables. Innerduct inside the conduit separates the cables and provides easier pulling of cables.
How the Internet Travels Across Oceans
After all, some person on the internet that expounds so knowledgeably may very well be an experienced thirty something climbing arborist that just tried this knot out today on a huge oak takedown and it rocks, or they may be a twelve year old who talks a good game and has read a couple of knot books. All knots or hitches cause some strength loss in the rope they are tied in through the creation of bends in the fibers that make up the line. Thus, knots that minimize the strength loss of the rope, or put another way, retain as much of the rope strength as possible are the best choice, particularly in rigging operations where lines and knots are exposed to a great deal of dynamic forces.
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100 Team-Building Activities That Actually Work
Occupational Safety General Regulations. Occupational Health and Safety Act. Table of Contents. Part 1 - Title and Definitions. Part 2 - General. Duties of parties. Conflict with these regulations. Compliance with standards incorporated by reference. Compliance with policies, procedures, plans and codes of practice. Communicating and updating policies, procedures, plans and codes of practice.
German Commercial Motor Vehicle Trade. Boilers Waste Heat and Directly Fired. Honeycomb and Clinker Formation in Furnaces. Germiston Railless Traction System South.
Enter search terms. Print This Page. Note: Requirements relating to portable ladders and fixed ladders have been moved to chapter WAC, Ladders, portable and fixed. Note: Requirements relating to scaffolds have been moved to chapter WAC.
O. Reg. 213/91: CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS
A rope is a group of yarns , plies , fibers or strands that are twisted or braided together into a larger and stronger form. Ropes have tensile strength and so can be used for dragging and lifting. Rope is thicker and stronger than similarly constructed cord, string , and twine. Rope may be constructed of any long, stringy, fibrous material, but generally is constructed of certain natural or synthetic fibres.
Work on a black work surface as it helps to find fiber scraps. Wear disposable aprons to minimize fiber particles on your clothing. Always wear safety glasses with side shields and protective gloves. Treat fiber optic splinters the same as you would treat glass splinters. Never look directly into the end of fiber cables until you are positive that there is no light source at the other end.
How the Internet Travels Across Oceans
I recently heard that pulling fiber cables by the aramid yarns can damage the fibers. What is the proper method for pulling premises optical fiber cables? Aramid yarns are the strength elements of the cable and specifically used so optical fibers are not damaged during installation. They also provide the mechanism for safely pulling the cable during installation. Pulling a premises optical fiber cable via its jacket is not recommended and highly likely to cause serious damage to the optical fibers.
Gmsh is an automatic 3D finite element mesh generator with build-in pre- and post-processing facilities. This is the Gmsh Reference Manual for Gmsh 4. Geuzaine and J.
Arbor Rigging: Knots, Hitches and "Do Nots"
Мистер. Беккер узнал голос. Это девушка.
Premises Fiber FAQs
Директор наверняка обратил внимание на выражение глаз Мидж, когда она выходила. - Не выпускай ее из приемной. Бринкерхофф кивнул и двинулся следом за Мидж. Фонтейн вздохнул и обхватил голову руками.
Я вас знаю. На такой риск вы не пойдете.
Если он знал, что мы его ликвидируем, то естественно было бы ожидать, что он накажет нас, допустив исчезновение кольца. В разговор вмешался новый участник. - Д-директор. Все повернулись к экрану. Это был агент Колиандер из Севильи.
Они потеряли веру. Они стали параноиками. Они внезапно стали видеть врага в. И мы, те, кто близко к сердцу принимает интересы страны, оказались вынужденными бороться за наше право служить своей стране. Мы больше не миротворцы. Мы слухачи, стукачи, нарушители прав человека. - Стратмор шумно вздохнул.
Скрытые тенью, на него смотрели глаза Грега Хейла, глаза, полные ужаса. Тогда Стратмор понял, что Грег Хейл должен умереть. В ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ послышался треск, и Стратмор приступил к решению стоявшей перед ним задачи - вырубить электричество.