Manufacture factory technological equipment for forestry
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Twenty years ago, most Americans pictured the Japanese factory as a sweatshop, teeming with legions of low-paid, low-skilled workers trying to imitate by hand, with great effort and infrequent success, what skilled American and European workers were doing with sophisticated equipment and procedures. Today, shocked and awed by the worldwide success of Japanese products, Americans […]. My research see my note on this page for a detailed description suggests that this new stereotype is probably as incorrect as the old one.
The modern Japanese factory is not, as many Americans believe, a prototype of the factory of the future. If it were, it might be, curiously, far less of a threat. We in the United States, with our technical ability and resources, ought then to be able to duplicate it. Instead, it is something much more difficult for us to copy; it is the factory of today running as it should.
The Japanese have achieved their current level of manufacturing excellence mostly by doing simple things but doing them very well and slowly improving them all the time.
In the factories I visited, all the nails appeared to have been hammered down. They are all important topics, but all have been the subject of innumerable books and articles. See the sidebar for a list of related reading. Instead, I will focus simply on how the Japanese manage their manufacturing functions.
Peter F. Byron K. Ezra F. For the most part, Japanese factories are not the modern structures filled with highly sophisticated equipment that I and others in the group expected them to be.
Automation consisted mainly of simple materials-handling equipment used in conjunction with standard processing equipment—just as it is here. Nor do the Japanese run this equipment at higher rates or for longer hours than U.
Because of government regulations against women working after 10 p. They were not widely adopted until several years after the Japanese Union of Scientists and Engineers had given them its official support in the mids. Most of the plants I visited had in fact experienced problems with QCs for three to four years after their introduction. Moreover, most of the companies I talked to already had enviable reputations for high-quality products by the time they adopted QCs. But the quality levels at these plants were just as high as at others where QCs were active.
Finally, I did not observe the use of uniform compensation systems. I had been led to expect wage systems based strictly on seniority, bonuses based on corporate profitability, no incentives based on individual performance, and no time clocks. Yet at one plant I found wages based on level of skill and commuting distance as well as on seniority. At another, by agreement with the union, bonuses equaled a certain number of months of regular salary independent of recent corporate profitability.
At a third, the general manager wanted to tie compensation more directly to individual performance measurement—almost on a piecework basis. And I did see a few time clocks in operation. In short, there appeared to be few general rules covering employee compensation.
Although I found no exotic, strikingly different Japanese way of doing things, I did notice several areas to which the Japanese had directed special attention.
The factories I visited were exceptionally quiet and orderly, regardless of the type of industry, the age of a company, its location, or whether it was a U. Clearly, this orderliness was not accidental. The meticulousness of the Japanese worker was not, in my opinion, the major reason for the pervasive sense of order that I observed but seemed instead to result from the attitudes, practices, and systems that plant managers had carefully put into place over a long period.
Sources of litter and grime were carefully controlled: boxes placed to catch metal shavings, plastic tubs and pipes positioned to catch and direct oil away from the workplace, spare parts and raw materials carefully stored in specified areas.
The rest areas were centrally located, tastefully decorated often with plants and flowers , and immaculate. Keeping their workplaces and machines in good order was a responsibility assigned to the workers themselves, along with maintaining output and quality and helping fellow workers.
Moreover, each worker was trained to correct the minor problems that often arose in the course of the day, to conduct regular preventive maintenance, to monitor and adjust equipment, and to search continually for ways to eliminate potential disruptions and improve efficiency. The object was simple: to avoid any breakdown of equipment during working hours. In the factories I saw, the sense of order also resulted from an almost total absence of inventory on the plant floor. Raw materials were doled out in small batches only as needed.
Suppliers often made three or four deliveries a day to avoid excess stock in the plant. Finished goods were removed immediately from the floor and either transferred to a separate warehouse or shipped directly to customers or distributors. The little inventory I did observe was carefully piled in boxes in specified places around the plant—marked, as were the aisles, with painted stripes. Even work-in-process inventory was minimal. Material moved along steadily, assisted by materials handlers, by automated equipment, and by the workers themselves.
Buffer inventories of partially completed work at various stations were unnecessary, for stoppages caused by breakdowns at earlier process stages almost never occurred. Because the incidence of rejects was very low, rejects did not pile up in baskets or on the floor I discuss this at length in the next section. Why do U. In contrast, the Japanese believe that inventory is by definition bad, and they therefore seek to avoid the rationale for large-batch production by directing their attention and ingenuity to reducing setup costs.
Toyota, for example, estimated that one U S. Volvo and a German competitor took four hours. You would be surprised how much you simplify problems and reduce costs when there are no inventories.
And, finally, when something goes wrong, the system stops. Immediately the whole organization becomes aware of the problem and works quickly to resolve it.
If you have buffer inventories, these potential problems stay hidden and may never get corrected. Our job is to keep crises from developing on the production floor so that our production workers can focus their attention on quality and productivity.
Tools, dies, and production equipment were not overloaded. In fact, machines often operated at slower rates than they were designed for—and at less than the usual rate in U. This practice reduced the possibility of jams and breakdowns as well as the wear on machine parts and dies. Along with regular preventive maintenance and constant cleaning and adjustment, machines last longer with reduced rates of use. I expected to be impressed by the newness of Japanese machine tools compared with those used in the same industries in the United States.
The average age of machine tools in U. But the machines were not really that much newer; they just looked newer. And they ran newer. One American manager who has studied closely the Japanese companies in his industry estimated that, even though they used equipment similar to that found in the United States, it lasted two to three times longer.
Most factories I saw used comprehensive equipment monitoring and early warning systems. These devices checked the process flow, signaled when jams occurred, measured dimensions and other characteristics of finished parts, indicated when these characteristics approached tolerance limits, and kept track of rates of use number of strokes, shots, or impressions of tools and dies and indicated when to adjust or regrind them.
These monitoring systems, together with the widespread use of simple materials-handling equipment, allowed Japanese workers to oversee the operation of more machines than their U. American managers, when walking around the floor of a Japanese factory, are often struck by the sense of being in a virtually untended forest of machines.
Sometimes they are untended. The Japanese have such trust in the error-free functioning of their equipment that they often load up a machine with work at the end of the last shift and let it run through the night. Production schedules were based on capacity measures derived from actual performance data not, as one often sees in the United States, from theoretical or obsolete standards. They were established at least a day in advance—generally several days. And unlike U. How can you change a production schedule when the inventory required to produce something different is not available?
No expediting and no overloading were allowed. Work was meted out to the plant in careful doses instead of being, as one U. One plant I visited, which produced electronic instruments in low volume, had a different approach. Production schedules were made up two weeks in advance, and at the beginning of each two-week period all the materials required to meet that schedule were distributed along the production line.
At the end of the period, the inventory was used up and a new batch brought in. Workers therefore had the satisfaction of cleaning up the plant floor every two weeks and were exposed to continual, controlled pressure to meet production quotas. Another company with a very broad product line imposed a simple constraint on production schedulers to reduce the frequency of equipment changeovers: it allowed no more than eight product changes a day. Salespeople might complain and schedulers might be pushed to the limits of their ingenuity, but the rule was firm.
If it became impossible to operate within the constraints of this rule, the company reduced its product line or increased the minimum size of customer orders—but the factory did not become burdened with confusion over additional product changes. A company often informed a supplier several months in advance of its schedule of deliveries to a plant.
The fact that Japanese companies tend to favor nearby suppliers reinforced this tight linkage. Crises are part of what makes work fun. To Japanese managers, however, a crisis is evidence of failure. It became clear to me that what sets Japanese factories apart is not so much what managers do but, rather, how well they do the things they have decided to do—that is, how they view their roles and responsibilities.
Japanese products have a worldwide reputation for precision, reliability, and durability. The important point, however, is not that the Japanese have made a remarkable transition but that it took 25 years of hard work to do it. But it conveys volumes about the Japanese character. As managers and as workers, the Japanese are smart and industrious—and never satisfied. They regard all problems as important. The Japanese, however, will reduce it.
Having accomplished this, they will attempt to reduce it to 0. And then 0. You might claim that this obsession is costly, that it makes no economic sense.
A semiconductor equipment company called Edwards Vacuum is consolidating its Hillsboro operations at a new factory that the British firm says will expand its local workforce by employees, to Edwards announced the new, 75,square-foot factory in April and said Tuesday that construction is complete. The company said it chose to continue operating in Hillsboro because the city is close to its major clients. Others, notably communications chip manufacturer Qorvo, also have substantial operations in Washington County.
Twenty years ago, most Americans pictured the Japanese factory as a sweatshop, teeming with legions of low-paid, low-skilled workers trying to imitate by hand, with great effort and infrequent success, what skilled American and European workers were doing with sophisticated equipment and procedures. Today, shocked and awed by the worldwide success of Japanese products, Americans […]. My research see my note on this page for a detailed description suggests that this new stereotype is probably as incorrect as the old one. The modern Japanese factory is not, as many Americans believe, a prototype of the factory of the future. If it were, it might be, curiously, far less of a threat.
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A technological world leader in processing a wide variety of materials: wood, plastic, glass, stone, metal and composites. The Group companies, operating throughout the world, are reliable partners of leading companies in various market sectors, including the furniture, construction, automotive, aerospace, ship-building and plastic processing industries. SCM Group coordinates, supports and develops a system of industrial excellence in 3 large highly specialized production centers employing more than 4. Stand-alone machines, integrated systems and services dedicated to processing a wide range of materials.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Automatic Cake Processing Machines Inside The Cake Factory - Fruitcake, Doughnuts, Cheesecakes
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Skip to content. Skip to navigation. Regarding research priorities, priority and long term actions identified in the EPoSS SRA match with the application opportunities identified in the links. Obviously, as the spectrum of analysed ETPs was very wide, there would be more actions that should be added.
Similar technological improvements, specifically within forest seed centers and nurseries, allow for the successful and cost efficient growing of seedlings and cuttings for the forest. At Bcc Plant the Planet we understand the specific needs of our customers and in order to serve these needs we have developed a very flexible line of equipment that can be adjusted to perform in the best possible way in the most different conditions. We have complete concepts for different climate conditions and species. An important part in these concepts, apart from the equipment, is the transfer of both biological and technical know-how. When you make BCC your supplier, you will not only get the most suitable product solutions , but the full package including crucial know-how from our experienced staff.
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Our company uses the latest log house production technologies. We have a control over complete manufacturing process in our factory starting from purchase of raw materials, coming from forests near the factory, exploited following the sustainable forest management standards. Sustainable exploitation contributes to preservation of forest patrimony for next generations. Today, thanks to responsible forest management, Finland counts more forest surface than years ago.