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Manufactory building radio communication, broadcasting and television antennas

Manufactory building radio communication, broadcasting and television antennas

When the World Trade Center towers came down in , New York was left with few options for radio transmitter sites. After eyeing proposed sites in Bayonne, N. Fred Geller Electric Inc. The building came with structural capacity to sustain a large antenna project. In fact, it was designed to provide transmission capabilities when it was constructed in the late s.

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Broadcasting

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This chapter presents the Voice of America VOA with a roadmap for introducing satellite audio broadcasting technology, and the improved services which it allows, into its operations to compensate for many of the transmission and reception limitations of its terrestrial, high-frequency HF , relay network.

The related question of television broadcasting must receive only passing mention at this point, although that medium is an increasingly effective one. There might be merit in assessing the relative emphasis on the two media, but that assessment lies outside the scope of this report for the following reasons. First, the VOA has elected to pursue its informational programs through the audio medium and has not formulated a role for itself in television.

Therefore, analysis of the value of television broadcasting and the various technical opportunities for implementing it would be more properly addressed to units of USIA other than VOA.

The topical sections that follow correspond closely to items described in the Statement of Task. A phased introduction of direct audio broadcasting by satellite DBS-A is shown to be technologically, economically, and politically feasible, within certain limits that the VOA should recognize in its planning for use of this transmission system. Even though a new generation of receivers for satellite reception is required, they can be produced on a short lead time, and this new transmission system can eventually complement the ongoing modernization of the terrestrial HF facilities.

The long-term goal to be addressed is the provision of a global service that offers the promises of international political acceptability, lower cost per channel, excellent reliability and quality, and less vulnerability to interference.

The development of DBS-A is not merely a question of exploiting technological possibility. HF is currently an accepted form of international broadcasting, with a long history of development and use. Introduction of a new satellite service by one or more major international broadcaster s will require not only that satellites be put into orbit and receivers designed, manufactured, and marketed, but also that parallel strategies be developed to overcome economic and political obstacles to effective deployment of the system.

On the economic side, the development of DBS-A must contend with problems of international debt, trade restrictions, and manufacturer attitudes, which could delay introduction of receivers or keep their prices artificially high for an extended length of time. Deployment of DBS-A as a system directed primarily at developing countries, for instance, must contend with the attitude among Asian manufacturers that their profitability is best assured by concentrating on markets with high income elasticity of demand, which is not the case outside a few countries of the industrial West, Japan, the Pacific rim, and Australia and New Zealand.

On the political front, achieving a dedicated DBS-A band allocation for regional and international broadcasting must be made a priority of U. This is essential to gain the cooperation of other countries to accept DBS-A signals into their territories, as they could broadcast their DBS-A programs in turn to yet other countries. The attitude of the Soviet Union is perhaps most crucial, since the VOA has major audiences there and should continue to develop such audiences.

But the opposition of the Soviet government to such a broadcasting system would slow the ability of its people significantly to acquire the necessary technology to receive such signals. Pursuing the opportunities provided by glasnost would seem to be in order. In any event, the VOA could use a space-based broadcasting service to reach most of the audiences of the world while continuing to use HF, as it does today, to reach those remaining, non-cooperative ones. Finally, the VOA should recognize, and adopt policies to address, the fact that both economic and political difficulties for this new system could be ameliorated by its own programming changes.

People will seek ways to overcome obstacles to access to technology if they have an incentive to do so. But merely providing news programming already available through other channels may not provide the incentive required for people to invest in the necessary reception technology. The programming must exploit the fidelity potential of the technology and compete well against the other options available.

Otherwise, investment in such a system would be a waste of resources. This context requires that the VOA undertake planning not only on the technological questions of transmission but also on effective means to overcome economic and political obstacles and on programming developments that can create the demand necessary to spur production, purchase, and use of the required receivers.

In detailed and quantitative terms, the report showed that present receiver populations are very unevenly distributed around the globe because of different economic conditions and national, political regulation. Technically, the receiver characteristics in various regions depend directly on the types of signals locally available, medium wave MW and short wave SW being dominant, with a much lower quantity of VHF units.

With no microwave signals at the frequencies from 1 to 12 GHz that are efficient for DBS-A purposes currently available, there are, of course, no microwave receivers. Such receivers are not currently produced because there is no consumer demand, and there is no demand because there are no satellite transmitters delivering quality programming. However, several manufacturers have observed that appropriate receivers could be delivered within only six months of a perceived demand.

The history of frequency-modulation FM radio and color television outside the developing world has shown that, when new classes of signals with desired program content are made available, user demand and receiver production expand rapidly to exploit the additional benefits of the new medium. These receivers could be used provided that some satellite audio broadcast services were made available in an introductory or auxiliary way, using existing satellites.

It could well result in establishing a viable manufacturing business in the U. Rogers , noted that the limitations of surface-based, HF short-wave transmissions are generally well known throughout the community of international, long-distance, audio broadcasters. The following is a partial list of these limitations:.

Complexity in selecting useful operating frequencies and in reaching international agreements for their specific allocation and use. Fading, distortion, and loss of the received signal because of variations in the altitude and charge density of the ionosphere brought about by solar-diurnal, seasonal, storm, and sunspot-cycle effects.

Interference from commercial and industrial noise emanating from the machinery of expanding industrialization in the receiving areas. Intentional interference, i. Changes in the transmitter frequency and corresponding, required retuning of the receiver by the listening audience throughout the day, to offset the variations in ionospheric reflection or to counteract jamming. Technical complexity and high costs, both for initial acquisition and installation and for continuing operation and maintenance, of the many high-power transmitting stations distributed around the world to achieve the desired audience coverage.

The utility of overseas repeater sites dependent upon the stability of agreements between the United States and host countries. For the VOA in particular, these general limitations of long-distance, HF broadcasting have several impacts on its modernization program.

To increase audience coverage and improve probability of satisfactory reception, additional distant repeater sites located within foreign countries and operating with high-power transmitters are being constructed.

The effectiveness of these stations depends upon the availability of many frequencies and upon audience willingness to retune to track VOA broadcasts. Even so, the VOA must accept significant degradations in service quality, reliability, and availability compared to commercial, over-the-air, AM and FM service in the United States.

In contrast, a DBS-A service promises widespread and predictable surface-area audience coverage and excellent reliability and quality of reception. Offered as a large-capacity, common-carrier, common-user service it should find general acceptance among the countries of the world; also, it would confront any potential jammer with severe political repercussions.

However, the relevant physical laws for radio-wave propagation, transmitter power, antenna gain, receiver sensitivity, and signal quality are well known; furthermore, there is extensive satellite communications experience at many frequencies from both low- and high-altitude orbits to guide the choice of system parameters for DBS-A service.

This experience, together with the current state of space technology, provides a sound basis, both technically and economically, for the phased introduction of DBS-A, initially as a supplement and ultimately i. Numerous studies Bachtell et al. Similarly, at or near the FM band, 88 to MHz, where millions of receivers already exist, space-segment antennas of the directivity required for regional coverage need apertures beyond the state of the art for space structures.

In addition, the required power density incident on earth would create unacceptable interference with the reuse of certain terrestrial FM and television frequencies and therefore contravene the Radio Regulations of the International Telecommunication Union ITU. However, satellite system configurations become feasible for audio broadcasting channels at microwave frequencies above 1 GHz.

Correspondingly, 2. This advantage stands in contrast to the fading and interference of terrestrial, HF signals caused by the vagaries of the ionosphere. The only significant variable in the satellite-to-earth transmission path is a frequency-dependent attenuation through foliage, building walls, and heavy precipitation, varying from nearly negligible at the end of the ultra-high frequency band UHF to high 10 to 20 dB at 12 GHz.

In general, a statistical base must be established to account for such excess attenuation values—values which can be expected to vary with receiver location e. Therefore, a single, fixed frequency can provide continuous service to a given area, freeing the listener from retuning. The service area available for satellite broadcasting is a function of satellite altitude, orbit inclination, and antenna beamwidth. Studies of low- vs. The Molniya orbit has been employed extensively by the Soviet Union because of its northern latitude coverage.

The geostationary orbit has been found more advantageous in the Western world, including northern Canada and Alaska, because of its freedom from satellite tracking requirements by the earth stations. Lower orbits, such as the eight-hour, near-equatorial, and sun-synchronous orbits studied in these references, have the appeal of lower cost per pound of communications payload into orbit, but their short time in view and multiple frequency demands limit their utility for broadcast service.

The Committee understands that the VOA has further study of particular, eight-hour orbits under way but has not yet reviewed that work. Accepting the higher cost of launching hardware to geostationary orbit and the greater demand on satellite effective antenna gain, the primary limitation of such orbits is the geometrical constraint in northern- and southern-latitude coverage.

Use of microwave frequencies for satellite broadcasting offers a degree of immunity from intentional interference, i. Line-of-sight properties of microwave propagation restrict the influence of interfering transmitters with a 1,foot antenna height to a radius of 40 to 50 miles, so that prevention of broadcast reception over large areas involves great cost.

Antijam techniques already used on military satellites employ uplink receiving antennas of high directivity, spread-spectrum modulation, and multiple linear receivers. Furthermore, mutual self interest encourages international compliance with ITU conventions in the use of a large-capacity, common-carrier, common-user system.

At this time, before any DBS-A system has been defined or procured, the accuracy of cost comparisons between terrestrial HF and satellite broadcasting operations is perforce limited. However, the relative magnitudes can be estimated based on the known history and projections of the VOA and the histories of satellite communications systems already in use for domestic and international fixed service.

Table 3—1 summarizes the capitalization and operating costs of one VOA relay site, one international satellite, and one domestic satellite over a ten-year period. Each site contains several transmitters and antennas. Figures for the two satellite columns in the table are based on actual, commercial experiences of international and domestic owners and operators. This gross comparison illustrates that the annualized cost of one terrestrial, HF relay station is approximately equal to that of one satellite, taking into account their respective equipment lifetimes of 20 and 10 years.

It is, of course, significant that a typical VOA relay site can transmit only on the order of five to eight signals simultaneously, all with the geographical and time-dependent coverage limitations discussed above. Thus for total VOA coverage comparisons, there would be a large, per-channel cost difference in favor of four geostationary satellites over a total of 10 to 15 terrestrial HF sites. Also, the useful lifetimes of in-orbit satellites continue to grow.

Studies over the past several years have addressed the future implications of large space platforms, both in geostationary orbit Edelson et al. As emphasized by Rogers , and the National Research Council the time scale for developing and demonstrating the technology for very large geostationary satellites is greater than 10 years.

Neither antennas in the range of m diameter nor power systems in the range of hundreds of kilowatts are likely to be available in space for the next several decades within the current and planned programs for large space station development and deployment. The recent schedule stretchout for the Space Station deployment following the loss of the Challenger probably will delay their availability further.

The above considerations argue strongly that large geostationary platform technology will not affect DBS-A in the near term. Meanwhile, present communications satellites could be employed initially, with special earth receivers used to allow local rebroadcast of the received signals. Finally, a true, large-capacity, DBS-A system and service could be introduced. Before speculating on the future applications of DBS-A by third-world nations, it is well to note that two satellites owned and operated by two third-world countries for the purpose of direct satellite broadcasting, both television and audio, are already in geostationary orbit.

Two Arabsats, located at 19 and 26 degrees east longitude, serving the seven nations of the Arabian Satellite Organization, are also multimission satellites with twelve fixed-satellite channels at C-band 4 and 6 GHz and two DBS channels at 2. Those satellites are still young in their respective lifetimes, so the extent of DBS service and the number of receivers are constrained by their current experimental nature.

As the technology, service, quality, and receiver affordability are demonstrated over the next several years, DBS-A will become attractive to other third-world countries that can neither afford their own satellites nor have the abundance of terrestrial broadcasting services available in the West and in Japan. Broadcast satellites are being vigorously developed by Japan, Europe and Australia, primarily for television.

The feasibility and desirability of incorporating DBS-A into these television broadcast satellites are recognized, and plans are in place to utilize them accordingly Miller, ; Treytl, ; Johnson, By contrast, the United States has no current DBS program commitment to such an international activity in broadcasting satellite development, deployment, and use.

While not strictly a satellite broadcasting service in the sense of direct user reception, radio programs are regularly distributed by satellite communications circuits in the United States, for example, by public radio, to affiliated amplitude modulation AM and FM stations.

Equatorial Communications employs spread-spectrum techniques to broadcast Muzak service directly to franchised users with small-antenna terminals 2 to 3 feet at C-band, 4 GHz. However, the state of the art of satellite technology does offer several options for introductory use of satellite transmitters by the VOA and others for limited broadcasting or auxiliary functions.

Interference with Radio, TV and Telephone Signals

A television antenna , or TV aerial , is an antenna specifically designed for use with a television receiver TV to receive over-the-air broadcast television signals from a television station. Television antennas are manufactured in two different types: "indoor" antennas, to be located on top of or next to the television set , and "outdoor" antennas, mounted on a mast on top of the owner's house. They can also be mounted in a loft or attic, where the dry conditions and increased elevation are advantageous for reception and antenna longevity.

Rabbit ears, aluminum foil, coat hangers, or a massive dish taking up half of your backyard. The antenna technology of yesterday included a variety of interesting sights to see, and sometimes, dad may have even asked you to hold onto the antenna and hike up your leg to get better reception.

Radio Tower Design Having left all antenna and tower making materials, behind when I retired, I arrived in Thailand ready for a new start. Made in the USA! CN Tower engineers attached two optical plumbs specially designed to keep tall buildings straight to permanent mounts on the tower and suspended a Station Grounds and grounding. An antenna can get charged up in different ways.

Diy Antenna Tower

This chapter is intended to accommodate the provision of wireless and broadcast communication services and provide a uniform and comprehensive set of standards for the development, siting, and installation of wireless and broadcast communication facilities. In accordance with the guidelines and intent of Federal law and the Telecommunications Act of , these regulations are intended to: 1 protect and promote the public health, safety, and welfare of the residents of Bend; 2 preserve neighborhood character and protect aesthetic quality; 3 encourage siting in preferred locations; and 4 minimize adverse visual impacts through careful design, configuration, screening, and innovative camouflaging techniques. This chapter applies to the development, siting, and installation of wireless and broadcast communication facilities, including but not limited to cellular telephone facilities, broadband internet facilities, and radio and TV broadcasting facilities. This chapter in no way prohibits, restricts, or impairs the installation, maintenance, or use of video antennas including direct-to-home satellite dishes, TV antennas, and wireless cable antennas used by viewers to receive video programming signals from direct broadcast facilities, broadband radio service providers, and TV broadcast stations. This chapter also applies to an eligible facilities request for a modification of an existing tower or base station that does not substantially change the physical dimension of such tower or base station. See BDC 3. NS, ; Ord. NS, ]. The following words and phrases used in this chapter, which supplement the definitions found in BDC Chapter 1.

Television antenna

For every type of broadcasting facility, Denki Kogyo has a full line of VHF and UHF band transmission antennas for transmission of broadcast signals to relay stations and homes, as well as UHF receiving antennas for receiving transmitted radio waves. Building on its foundation of experience, Denki Kogyo works with you, from studies of antenna options to design and manufacturing of all kinds of antennas, including transmission antennas for analog television broadcasts and FM radio broadcasting antennas. Building on its strong track record, Denki Kogyo works with you, from studies of antenna options to design and manufacturing of all kinds of antennas, including terrestrial digital broadcasting antennas. Denki Kogyo Co. DKK - Denki Kogyo serves both the telecommunications and radio frequency industries.

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Compare the most helpful customer reviews of the best rated products in our TV Antennas store. These products are shortlisted based on the overall star rating and the number of customer reviews received by each product in the store, and are refreshed regularly. Best Rated by Department. Current Department.

When it comes to antennas, it IS rocket science!

Winegard has been manufacturing wireless broadband cellular antennas since the first generation was introduced and now is poised to launch its 5G versions. The 4G and 4G LTE network technologies being used now in its antennas pull signals from farther away than most of its competition due to how Winegard builds and positions the antennas in the products. Winegard manufactures WiFi antennas for various uses. Recently, it launched a WiFi extender for special uses when signals are drained due to volume or too far away and weak to have consistent service.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Homemade HDTV Antenna (watch free TV)

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. This chapter presents the Voice of America VOA with a roadmap for introducing satellite audio broadcasting technology, and the improved services which it allows, into its operations to compensate for many of the transmission and reception limitations of its terrestrial, high-frequency HF , relay network. The related question of television broadcasting must receive only passing mention at this point, although that medium is an increasingly effective one. There might be merit in assessing the relative emphasis on the two media, but that assessment lies outside the scope of this report for the following reasons.

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Winegard Company is a trusted connectivity partner for designing and manufacturing the greatest range of world-class connectivity products and services, including WiFi and 4G LTE, satellite, broadband, video, and over-the-air technology for residential, commercial, and mobile applications. Founder, John Winegard, invented the multi-channel Yagi antenna and since its incorporation in , Winegard has designed more than 1, antenna models and been granted more than 90 U. Winegard's high-performance designs for TV, wireless, and cellular technologies are manufactured in the U. The Iowa-based facility totals , sq. Winegard Company pioneered the ability to connect Americans across the nation to more than one TV channel at a time in

The related question of television broadcasting must receive only passing mention . to costs estimated by the Communications Satellite Corporation for its DBS-TV physical laws for radio-wave propagation, transmitter power, antenna gain, a frequency-dependent attenuation through foliage, building walls, and heavy.

Our team has significant experience and know-how in the design, installation and maintenance of telecommunication, IT and management systems. You will meet face to face with professionals, who not only are highly qualified, innovative and experienced, but also have the skills to define the right tasks and technical challenges, using "out of the box" approach and implementing the latest technologies. Investing our best efforts and time to find or invent new and innovative solutions and integrate them accordingly is the key to our success. We design and build individual solutions for every new project, considering its both financial and technical aspects.

How to choose a TV antenna

Putting up a TV antenna is one of the best steps you can take toward breaking your reliance on pay TV and saving hundreds of dollars a year. Most areas of the U. Over-the-air TV signals are typically compressed less than cable or satellite broadcasts so pictures will appear either the same quality or better. All of the major broadcast networks now transmit in high-definition and in some areas test broadcasts for the new ATSC 3.

KVLY-TV mast

Completed during , it was the tallest structure in the world until succeeded by the Warsaw radio mast during , which collapsed in , again making the KVLY-TV mast the tallest structure in the world until the Burj Khalifa exceeded it in It remains the fourth-tallest structure in the world since the construction of the Tokyo Skytree and the Shanghai Tower , the tallest structure in the Western Hemisphere , and the tallest broadcasting mast in the world. The mast is located 3 miles 4. Construction was completed August 13,

Radio and television signals can be distributed and transmitted in various ways.

За годы, прошедшие после появления в АНБ Сьюзан, Стратмор поднялся с поста начальника Отдела развития криптографии до второй по важности позиции во всем агентстве. Теперь только один человек в АНБ был по должности выше коммандера Стратмора - директор Лиланд Фонтейн, мифический правитель Дворца головоломок, которого никто никогда не видел, лишь изредка слышал, но перед которым все дрожали от страха.

Он редко встречался со Стратмором с глазу на глаз, но когда такое случалось, это можно было сравнить с битвой титанов. Фонтейн был гигантом из гигантов, но Стратмора это как будто не касалось. Он отстаивал перед директором свои идеи со спокойствием невозмутимого боксера-профессионала.

Best Rated in TV Antennas

Теперь он молил Бога, чтобы священник не торопился, ведь как только служба закончится, он будет вынужден встать, хотя бы для того чтобы пропустить соседей по скамье. А в своем пиджаке он обречен. Беккер понимал, что в данный момент ничего не может предпринять.

Ему оставалось только стоять на коленях на холодном каменном полу огромного собора. Старик утратил к нему всякий интерес, прихожане встали и запели гимн. Ноги у него свело судорогой. Хорошо бы их вытянуть.

The Antenna in Times Square

И я постараюсь это право обеспечить. ГЛАВА 7 Мозг Сьюзан лихорадочно работал: Энсей Танкадо написал программу, с помощью которой можно создавать шифры, не поддающиеся взлому. Она никак не могла свыкнуться с этой мыслью.

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