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Industrial commercial industrial crops

Industrial commercial industrial crops

Industrial crops can provide abundant renewable biomass feedstocks for the production of high added-value bio-based commodities i. Most are multipurpose crops offering the opportunity to follow a cascade biorefinery concept to produce value-added bioproducts and bioenergy, thus feeding the bio-based economy. This land has been either abandoned because of its productivity, or it is used as grassland. Marginal lands for growing industrial crops MAGIC is based on the premise that cultivation of selected industrial crops on areas facing natural constraints e. It has been estimated that as many as 2.

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Industrial Crops and Uses

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In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Help us improve our products. Sign up to take part. A Nature Research Journal. Carbon-based nanomaterials CBNs have great potential as a powerful tool to improve plant productivity. Here, we investigated the biological effects of graphene and carbon nanotubes CNTs on fiber-producing species cotton, Gossypium hirsutum and ornamental species vinca, Catharanthus roseus.

The exposure of seeds to CNTs or graphene led to the activation of early seed germination in Catharanthus and overall higher germination in cotton and Catharanthus seeds. The application of CBNs resulted in higher root and shoot growth of young seedlings of both tested species. Cultivation of Catharanthus plants in soil supplemented with CBNs resulted in the stimulation of plant reproductive system by inducing early flower development along with higher flower production.

Long-term application of CBNs to crops cultivated under salt stress conditions improved the desired phenotypical traits of Catharanthus higher flower number and leaf number and cotton increased fiber biomass compared to untreated plants of both species cultivated at the same stress condition. The drought stress experiments revealed that introduction of CBNs to matured Catharanthus plant increased the plant survival with no symptoms of leaf wilting as compared to untreated Catharanthus growing in water deficit conditions.

The applications of nanotechnology in agriculture can lead to significant improvements in plant growth and yield and reduce the use of genetically modified organisms GMO and agrochemicals 1.

In the last decade, studies on plant-nanomaterial interactions have increased rapidly due to the discovery of the positive effects of nanomaterials in planta 2 , 3 , 4. The applications of nanomaterials in plant agriculture are widespread, ranging from nano-fertilizers for improving growth and yield, pesticides for controlling pest and plant disease, and nanosensors for managing plant health and soil quality 5.

To date, the interactions of CBNs with plant systems have been studied in different plant organs including seeds, seedlings, plants, and plant cell cultures 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , Positive effects of CBNs on seed germination and plant productivity have been documented for model plant species 8 , 11 , 12 , 13 , food crops corn, barley, soybean 14 as well as for bioenergy crops sorghum, switchgrass One of the most promising discoveries is the ability of a wide range of CBNs to induce early flower development and significantly stimulate the production of flowers and fruits of plants grown in hydroponics or soil supplemented with CBNs 16 , However, the mechanism of positive effects of CBNs on plant systems is not fully understood yet.

It is already known that CBNs are affecting plants at the molecular level during exposure because it has been determined that the positive impact of CBNs on seed germination and plant growth is strongly correlated with the regulation of expression of major stress-responsive genes in CBN-exposed plants 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , For example, the exposure of plants to CNTs led to the activation of the expression of aquaporins water channel genes in different crop species 8 , 11 , 12 , 14 , Many recent efforts were focused on detection of CBNs in plants.

It was shown that CBNs used as growth regulators can be absorbed by roots of plants and move from roots to other plant organs including shoots, leaves, flowers, and fruits 8 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , It was interesting that absorption of CBNs not only led to changes at the genomic level but also imposed changes in the metabolomic profile in CNT-treated plants 8 , The documented presence of absorbed CBNs in the edible plant organs flowers and fruits raised significant concerns about the possible movement of CBN residues located in plant organs into the food chain 4.

Recently, we demonstrated that CBNs not only improved plant productivity under normal conditions of cultivation but can also reverse certain symptoms of toxicity caused by abiotic stress For example, exposure of seeds or seedlings of bioenergy crops sorghum and switchgrass to CBNs can lead to a reduction of the toxic effects of NaCl salt stress Therefore, application of nanomaterials for enhancement of abiotic stress tolerance of commercially valuable crops is a highly favorable approach in current situation of global climate change.

It is reported that environmental stress is becoming a crucial challenge for agricultural production 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , The paucity of freshwater resources and the dramatically increased salinization is a critical challenge for plant yield due to rapid desertification of agricultural land 18 , The excessive exposure of plants to salts lead to leaf wilting followed by reduced growth and eventually partial or whole plant damage 21 , It is reported that salt stress significantly affects cotton productivity by reducing the shoot growth, monopodia per plant, plant height, cotton boll number, biomass, and fiber quality Similarly, irrigation of salty water on important ornamental plants negatively affected plant architecture and eventually led to delays in flower bud production Genetic modifications such as genetic engineering and plant breeding are quite popular tools to improve commercially valuable traits of plants, including overall productivity and abiotic stress tolerance 25 , However, limited availability of genes of particular crops, low success rate, potential ecological impacts as well as public concern about the genetically modified crops are the major disadvantages of existing technologies 25 , 26 , It is possible that the use of CBNs can provide an alternative approach for regulation of stress tolerance of non-food crop species.

The major goal of this work is to investigate the technological potential of two types of CBNs: multi-walled carbon nanotubes CNTs and graphene for the enhancement of productivity of ornamental plant Catharanthus and fiber-producing crop cotton under regular conditions and conditions with imposed drought and salt stresses.

Experimental design for the study of the impact of CBNs on seed germination, plant growth, and osmotic stress tolerance of selected fiber-producing cotton and ornamental species Catharanthus. The seeds of Catharanthus and cotton were exposed to growth media with CNTs or graphene.

Long-term application of CBNs to tested crops was achieved by cultivating in the soil supplemented with CNTs or graphene. In order to test whether graphene and CNTs can affect the germination of two selected non-food species, sterilized seeds of Catharanthus and cotton were inoculated in growth medium supplemented with graphene or CNTs. We observed that the exposure of seeds to pure CBNs did not lead to the development of any toxic symptoms and positively affected the seed germination of cotton and Catharanthus Fig.

The early germination was recorded as the result of the application of graphene or CNTs to seeds of Catharanthus. For example, the first signs of seed germination were observed at day 2 for seeds exposed to CBNs whereas germination was started at day 3 for Catharanthus seeds exposed to control medium which was not supplemented with CBNs.

Moreover, both tested CBNs significantly increased the germination rate of Catharanthus. The positive effects of CBNs on seed germination was observed for cotton as well. Enhancement of seed germination of fiber-producing and ornamental species by the application of CBNs. The phenotypical analysis of germinated seedlings revealed that seedlings exposed to CBNs CNTs, graphene grew faster compared to untreated seedlings of both tested crops.

Similar results were observed for cotton seedling development by exposure to CBNs Fig. The activation of growth and development of seedlings of cotton and Catharanthus exposed to two types of CBNs. The application of CBNs stimulated the fresh root as well as shoot biomass production in 4 week-old Catharanthus. Based on the phenotypic analysis of young seedlings Catharanthu s, cotton , we have concluded that the application of low doses of CBNs can positively affect the overall growth pattern of model ornamental crops Catharanthus and valuable fiber producing crops cotton at the seedlings stage without showing any toxic symptoms.

In addition, we also investigated whether the continuous exposure of both crops to carbon-based nanomaterials can induce any desired traits in cotton and Catharanthus at the stage of maturity.

We observed that the introduction of CBNs to soil used for the cultivation of Catharanthus dramatically affected the reproductive system of both tested species. S1A,B as well as significantly increased the number of flowers as compared to untreated Catharanthus plants Fig.

We found that addition of CBNs to the cotton cultivated in the soil led to early flower development as compared to untreated cotton at 10 week-old plants Fig. However, the number of produced fiber bolls in CBN-treated and untreated control cotton plants were not visibly different Fig.

The statistical significance was determined as compared to untreated control Catharanthus plants. Sodium chloride NaCl is toxic for both tested species and reduces the rate of germination of Catharanthus and cotton. We tested the effect of different concentrations of NaCl on seed germination of both tested crops Supplementary Fig. The application of CBNs to salty growth medium reversed the toxic effects of salts and positively affected the seed germination of both tested crops Fig.

Both tested nanomaterials CNTs, graphene significantly activated the cotton germination as well Fig. Activation of seed germination by application of CBNs in cotton and Catharanthus under salt stress. In order to investigate the effect of two CBNs on tolerance of young and mature cotton and Catharanthus plants to salt stress, we performed several experiments.

First, we tested the sensitivity of Catharanthus and cotton seedlings to different doses of NaCl Supplementary Fig. As shown in Fig. However, the phenotypic analysis of young seedlings exposed to both CBNs and NaCl revealed that the introduction of both tested CBNs to salty growth medium dramatically reduced the toxic symptoms of NaCl and positively affected the seedling growth of both Catharanthus and cotton Fig.

In fact, exposure of young seedlings cotton, Catharanthus to salty growth media resulted in higher root and shoot length as compared to control seedlings seedlings grown in regular growth media. Growth and developments of seedlings of cotton and Cathatanthus exposed to CBNs under salt stress in vitro.

At the same time, the application of CBNs to salty agar medium resulted in the reversal of NaCl toxicity and improvement of seedlings development towards normal control level.

We observed similar effect of graphene on the development of cotton seedlings under salt stress conditions. The applications of CNTs and graphene improved the overall root and shoot biomass of Catharanthus seedlings grown under salt stress Supplementary Fig. Note that the application of activated carbon micro-sized carbon particles to salty growth medium did not lead to suppression of toxic symptoms caused by NaCl observed for CNTs and graphene Supplementary Fig.

The greenhouse experiments revealed that cultivation of Catharanthus in salty soil led to significant reduction in overall plant growth including delayed flower production and changed plant architecture Supplementary Fig. S7 as compared to Catharanthus cultivated in regular soil. However, the addition of nanomaterials CNTs or graphene to salty soil reduced the toxic effects of NaCl and improved several phenotypic traits including the early flower development Supplementary Fig. S8 and total number of flowers as compared to Catharanthus plants exposed to NaCl mixed soil Fig.

We observed that all the concentrations of CBNs tested were effective in reduction of toxic symptoms caused by NaCl and the activation of flower production in Catharanthus under NaCl mediated salt stress.

Additionally, we also observed that the application of CBNs to salty soil significantly increased the total number of leaves produced by matured Catharanthus plants when compared to Catharanthus plant exposed to NaCl only Supplementary Fig.

Similar results were recorded for NaCl exposed cotton plants by introduction of nanomaterials thorough watering with CBN solution for 4 weeks. Long-term application of CBNs reduced the toxic symptoms caused by NaCl and improved fiber yield under salt stress condition Fig. Long-term application of CBNs to salty soil reduced the toxic effects of salt stress and improved the growth and yield of Catharanthus. Long-term application of CBNs to salty soil reduced the toxic effects of salt and improved the growth and yield of cotton.

The introduction of CBNs to salty soil positively affected the fiber yield of cotton cultivated in the soil supplemented with CNTs A , C and in soil supplemented with graphene B , D under imposed salt stress condition. In order to investigate the effects of CBNs in response to a water deficiency of ornamental species Catharanthus , weeks-old CBN-exposed and control untreated Catharanthus plants were deprived of water for 2 weeks.

After one week of drought stress, untreated Catharanthus plants control showed signs of water deficit stress as indicated by leaf wilting, while very slight stress symptoms were observed for Catharanthus plants previously treated with graphene or CNTs Fig. After two weeks of drought stress, untreated Catharanthus plants were completely dried, whereas Catharanthus plants exposed to graphene showed the symptoms of leaf wilting but plants were not completely dried Fig.

The observed phenotypic difference between control and CBNs treated Catharanthus linked to doses of applied CBNs and intensity of water deficit stress of plants. We concluded that the application of CBNs can enhance the stress tolerance of Catharanthus against drought stress. Indeed, the exposure of mature Catharanthus to graphene or CNTs results in higher leaf relative water content as compared to leaves of untreated control Catharanthus plants Fig.

Moreover, measurement of the volumetric water content of pot soil used for plant cultivation revealed that the CBNs treated soil contained more moisture than the untreated soil at day 3, day 5, and day 7 of imposed drought stress Fig. This observation clearly indicates that when CBNs is mixed with the soil, the soil moisture content will be maintained for longer period of time. The phenotype of Catharanthus plants grown in conditions of water deficit stress in presence of CBNs.

The calibration curves for the detection of CNTs in the exposed Catharanthus organs are given in Fig. The leaves and flowers of Catharanthus not exposed to CNTs were used as controls.

The temperature differences between the controls and the CNT-exposed organs were used to determine CNT content from the calibration curves. Plants are used for the production of flowers or fiber bolls which are among the most valuable industrial species.

Industrial crop

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Agriculture has played an important role in buffering Indonesia's economy during the recent, lengthy economic crisis. However, the agricultural sector also experienced considerable difficulties that are reflected in fall in the production of many crops presented in this report. Indonesia has to import considerable amounts of several basic food crops, such as rice, maize, soybean, orange and apple Figure 8. Although there is no record, sugar cane sugar was also imported in large amounts, perhaps about to thousand tonnes or more. All wheat is imported since it cannot be grown in the country.

Handbook of Industrial Crops

NCBI Bookshelf. Many of the initial international wildlife conservation efforts focused on attractive species of endangered mammals—the so-called charismatic megafauna. Although a number of these programs have proven to be extremely successful, the modus operandi was clearly not entirely applicable to the conservation of all organisms: "Save the Sedges! Furthermore, human existence is much more dependent on the plant kingdom than on animals. Plants are indeed the roots of life. Because of the sheer diversity of plant life—especially in the tropics—many conservationists in the recent past have had some difficulty trying to decide where to begin. Faced with an area like the Amazon, home to tens of thousands of species of plants, many of which have yet to be discovered by modern scientists, it is clearly impractical to evaluate the conservation status and potential utility of each species on an individual basis.

Marginal Lands for Growing Industrial Crops: Turning a Burden into an Opportunity

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Catalog Record: Industrial crops of the Philippines | HathiTrust Digital Library

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Industrial Crops Commercialization

The Altai Krai is the breadbasket not only for Siberia, but also for the country. The region is the largest grain producer in the Russian Federation. The region has a high potential in the field of agricultural production. The total area of agricultural purpose lands amounts to The region has seven soil-climatic zones that range from steppe to foothills. The diverse soil and climatic conditions enables to grow a large variety of crops in the region.

“Industrial crop” refers to the managed production of biological materials for .. The cashew is an important industrial crop cultivated for commercial purpose in.

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Vietnam Yield of Crops: Industrial Crops: Sugar Canes

Jump to navigation. The GRACE project will explore the potential of the non-food industrial crops miscanthus and hemp as a source of biomass for the bio-economy. Both miscanthus and hemp are relatively under-exploited, but offer an interesting business opportunity for farmers and industry. GRACE will demonstrate and optimise the techno economic viability and environmental sustainability of ten promising miscanthus and hemp biomass-based value chains using marginal, contaminated and unused land at an industry relevant scale.

Industrial Crops and Products

Skip to main content Skip to table of contents. Advertisement Hide. Editors view affiliations Jameel M.

The whole world is experiencing a food crisis.

Industrial crops have been promoted heavily in different parts of Sub-Sahara Africa in the past decades. Their recent expansion has been due to a set of very different policy imperatives related to economic growth, rural development, and energy security. However, as an agricultural activity, industrial crop production can have substantial trade-offs with food crop production, and ultimately food security. The ultimate aim of the project was to understand how industrial crop production affects food security around operational projects e.

The consortium consists of 22 partners from universities, agricultural companies and industry. The project is coordinated by the University of Hohenheim in Stuttgart Germany. It is primarily The private project partners are contributing the remaining 2. The goals of the project are to produce sustainable products with a strong market potential, to guarantee a reliable and affordable supply of sustainably produced biomass, and to better link biomass producers with the processing industry. In order to avoid competition with food and feed crops, miscanthus and hemp are cultivated on areas that have been polluted for example by heavy metals, or are unattractive for food production due to lower yields. Founded in after devastating famines, the University of Hohenheim is the oldest university in Stuttgart.

Industrial agriculture is currently the dominant food production system in the United States. It's characterized by large-scale monoculture, heavy use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and meat production in CAFOs confined animal feeding operations. The industrial approach to farming is also defined by its heavy emphasis on a few crops that overwhelmingly end up as animal feed, biofuels, and processed junk food ingredients.

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