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Industrial commercial general purpose radio stations and radios

Industrial commercial general purpose radio stations and radios

This publication includes a compendium of media promotion and B2B initiatives from across Europe and beyond. Each week, egta publishes an idea worth sharing, a success story from one of our members. Typical features include snapshots about an advertiser-related case study, an industry initiative, a specific multi-platform campaign or a piece of best practice. These short articles help promote TV and radio as efficient advertising and communication media in the digital environment.

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: All GTA Talk Radio Stations Ever (Part 1)

Dear readers! Our articles talk about typical ways to resolve Industrial commercial general purpose radio stations and radios, but each case is unique.

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All electrically-based industries trace their ancestry back to at least B. In , William Gilbert, an Englishman, distinguished between magnetism, such as that displayed by a lodestone, and what we now call the static electricity produced by rubbing amber.

Assisted by Henry, an American artist, Samuel F. Morse, developed a telegraph system utilizing a key to open and close an electric circuit to transmit an intermittent signal Morse Code through a wire. The possibility of transmitting messages through the air, water, or ground via low frequency magnetic waves was discovered soon after Morse invented the telegraph. Stubblefield, a Kentucky farmer, in Because Stubblefield transmitted sound through the air via induction, rather than by radiation, he was not the inventor of radio.

Transmission by radiation owes its existence to the discovery in of electromagnetic waves by a German, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. Electromagnetic waves of from 10, cycles a second to 1,,, cycles a second are today called radio waves.

A few years later, in , using a different and much superior wireless telegraphy system, an Italian, Guglielmo Marconi, used discontinuous waves to send Morse Code messages through the air for short distances over land. Later he sent them across the Atlantic Ocean. On land in Europe Marconi was stymied by laws giving government-operated postal services a monopoly on message delivery, and initially only over water was he able to transmit radio waves very far.

Several Americans transmitted speech without the benefit of wires prior to Alexander G. Bell, for example, experimented in with transmitting sound with rays of light, whose frequency exceeds that of radio waves. His test of what he called the photophone was said to be the first practical test of such a device ever made. Although Marconi is widely given the credit for being the first man to develop a successful wireless system, some believe that others, including Nicola Tesla preceded him.

However, it is clear that Marconi had far more influence on the shaping of the radio industry than these men did. None of the major electrical and telephone companies played a role in the formative years of the radio industry. Scientists obtain their objective by discovering the laws of nature. Inventors, on the other hand, use the laws of nature to find a way to do something. Scientists thought that radio waves could not be transmitted beyond the horizon because they thought that this would require that they bend to follow the curvature of the Earth.

Marconi tried transmitting beyond the horizon anyway and succeeded. A typical scientist would not have tried to do this because he knew better and his fellow scientists might laugh at him. Marconi may not have been visionary enough to found the radio broadcasting industry.

Vision was required because, while there was already an established market for electronic, point-to-point communication, there was no existing market for broadcasting, nor could the technology for transmitting speech be as easily developed as could that for transmitting dots and dashes.

Its competitive advantage was much lower cost than transmission by wire over land and undersea cable. As a result, it had no overwhelming need to develop a new service. In addition, Marconi had no surplus funds to plow into a new business.

Marconi had wanted to create an international wireless monopoly. However, the United States government opposed the creation of a foreign-owned wireless monopoly. After the war the Navy wanted wireless to continue to be a government-controlled monopoly. Unable to achieve this, the Navy recommended that an American-owned company be established to control the manufacture and marketing of wireless in the United States.

Marconi successfully exploited the interdependence among technology, business strategy, and the press. He was the only one of the four to have an adequate business strategy. Only he and deForest took full advantage of the press. However, deForest seems to have used the press more to sell stock than apparatus.

Marconi was also more astute in his patent dealings than were his American competitors. For example, to protect himself from a possible patent suit, he purchased from Thomas A. Edison his patent on a system of wireless telegraphy that Edison had never used. Marconi never used it either because it was inferior to one he developed.

Fessenden, a very prolific inventor, first experimented with voice transmission while working for the United States Weather Bureau. In he left what is now the University of Pittsburgh, where he was head of the electrical engineering department, to develop a method for the U.

Weather Bureau to transmit weather reports. That year, through the use of a transmitter that produced discontinuous waves, he succeeded in transmitting speech. Although discontinuous waves would satisfactorily transmit the dots and dashes of Morse code, high quality voice and music cannot be transmitted in this way.

So, in , Fessenden switched to using a continuous wave, becoming the first person to transmit voice and music by this method. On Christmas Eve, , Fessenden made history by broadcasting music and speech from Massachusetts that was heard as far away as the West Indies. After picking up this broadcast, the United Fruit Company purchased equipment from Fessenden to communicate with its ships. Navies and shipping companies were among those most interested in purchasing early radio equipment.

During World War I armies also made significant use of radio. Important among its army uses was communicating with airplanes. Because he did not provide a regular schedule of programming for the public, Fessenden is not usually credited with having operated the first broadcasting station.

Nonetheless, he is widely recognized as the father of broadcasting because those who had gone before him had only used radio to deliver messages from one person to another.

However, despite being preoccupied with laboratory work and being unsuited by temperament and experience to be a businessman, he chose to directly manage his company. It failed, and an embittered Fessenden left the radio industry. Lee deForest, whose doctoral dissertation was about Hertzian waves, received his Ph. His first job was with Western Electric. He was acquitted. The Audion tube later known as a triode tube was far from being a worthless device, as it was a key component of radios so long as vacuum tubes continued to be used.

They discovered that the introduction of impurities into semiconductors provided a solid-state material that would not only rectify a current, but also amplify it. Transistors using this material rapidly replaced vacuum tubes. Later it became possible to etch transistors on small pieces of silicon in integrated circuits.

In , deForest broadcast, probably rather poorly, the singing of opera singer Enrico Caruso. He installed a transmitter at the Columbia Gramophone building in New York and began daily broadcasts of phonograph music sponsored by Columbia.

Because in the late nineteenth century the new electrical industry had made some investors multimillionaires almost over night, Americans like deForest and his partners found easy pickings for awhile, as many people were eager to snap up the stock offered by overly optimistic inventors in this new branch of the electrical industry.

The quick failure of firms whose end, rather than their means, was selling stock made life more difficult for ethical firms. In the United States in there were licensed amateur radio operators who would ultimately be relegated to the seemingly barren wasteland of the radio spectrum, short wave.

By there were 13, amateur radio operators. At that time building a radio receiver was a fad. The typical builder was a boy or young man.

Many older people thought that all radio would ever be was a fad, and certainly so long as the public had to build its own radios, put up with poor reception, and listen to dots and dashes and a few experimental broadcasts of music and speech over earphones, relatively few people were going to be interested in having a radio.

Laying the groundwork for making radio a mass medium was Edwin H. Army during World War I of the super heterodyne that made it possible to replace earphones with a loudspeaker. In , the American Radio Relay league and a British amateur group assisted by Armstrong, an engineer and college professor, proved that contrary to the belief of experts, short waves can travel over long distances.

Three years later Marconi, who had previously used only long waves, showed that short-wave radio waves, by bounding off the upper atmosphere, can hopscotch around the world. This discovery led to short wave radio being used for long distance radio broadcasting.

Today telephone companies use microwave relay systems for long-distance, on-shore communication through the air.

In , Frank Conrad, a Westinghouse engineer, began broadcasting music in Pittsburgh. These broadcasts stimulated the sales of crystal sets. A crystal set, which could be made at home, was composed of a tuning coil, a crystal detector, and a pair of earphones. The use of a crystal eliminated the need for a battery or other electric source. In , KDKA began broadcasting prizefights and major league baseball. Later, a government that had once considered making radio a government monopoly followed a policy of promoting competition in the radio industry.

Patent pooling was the solution to the problem of each company owning some essential patents. Sarnoff, who began his career in radio as a Marconi office boy, gained fame as a wireless operator and showed the great value of radio when he picked up distress messages from the sinking Titanic. Ultimately, RCA expanded into nearly every area of communications and electronics.

Its extensive patent holdings gave it power over most of its competitors because they had to pay it royalties. While still working for Marconi Sarnoff had the foresight to realize that the real money in radio lay in selling radio receivers. Because the market was far smaller, radio transmitters generated smaller revenues.

Marconi was able to charge people for transmitting messages for them, but how was radio broadcasting to be financed? In Europe the government financed it. In this country it soon came to be largely financed by advertising.

In , few stations sold advertising time. Then the motive of many operating radio stations was to advertise other businesses they owned or to get publicity. Another quarter were owned by radio-related firms. Educational institutions, radio clubs, civic groups, churches, government, and the military owned 40 percent of the stations. Radio manufacturers viewed broadcasting simply as a way to sell radios. By nine out of ten broadcasting stations were selling advertising time.

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Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS)

Digital Audio Broadcasting DAB is a digital radio standard for broadcasting digital audio radio services , used in many countries around the world, though not North America where HD Radio is used instead. The DAB standard was initiated as a European research project in the s. DAB receivers have been available in many countries since the end of the s. DAB is generally more efficient in its use of spectrum than analogue FM radio, and thus can offer more radio services for the same given bandwidth. However the sound quality can be noticeably inferior if the bit-rate allocated to each audio program is not sufficient. DAB is more robust with regard to noise and multipath fading for mobile listening, [3] although DAB reception quality degrades rapidly when the signal strength falls below a critical threshold, whereas FM reception quality degrades slowly with the decreasing signal, providing effective coverage over a larger area. Norway is the first country to implement a national FM radio analog switchoff , in , however that only applied to national broadcasters, not local ones.

Ship Radio Stations

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The Minister may set a time within which the licensee shall commence construction and may also set a time within which the licensee must have the station in operation. Authority to install and operate a radio station in Canada will be granted only after a complete evaluation and acceptance of a submission. Formal authority is issued in the form of a radio licence.

Digital Audio Broadcasting

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SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Setting Up a Professional Radio Studio: What You Need to Know

Account Options Anmelden. Meine Mediathek Hilfe Erweiterte Buchsuche. Plunkett Research, Ltd. The automobile industry is evolving rapidly on a worldwide basis. Manufacturers are merging, component design and manufacture are now frequently outsourced instead of being created in-house, brands are changing and the giant auto makers are expanding deeper into providing financial services to car buyers. The skyrocketing price of gas spurs developments in hybrid technology and clean diesel, as manufacturers look for ways to improve fuel efficiency.

Radio broadcasting

All electrically-based industries trace their ancestry back to at least B. In , William Gilbert, an Englishman, distinguished between magnetism, such as that displayed by a lodestone, and what we now call the static electricity produced by rubbing amber. Assisted by Henry, an American artist, Samuel F. Morse, developed a telegraph system utilizing a key to open and close an electric circuit to transmit an intermittent signal Morse Code through a wire. The possibility of transmitting messages through the air, water, or ground via low frequency magnetic waves was discovered soon after Morse invented the telegraph. Stubblefield, a Kentucky farmer, in Because Stubblefield transmitted sound through the air via induction, rather than by radiation, he was not the inventor of radio. Transmission by radiation owes its existence to the discovery in of electromagnetic waves by a German, Heinrich Rudolf Hertz.

Apr 17, - The goal of the new station is to maintain traditional and ancestral knowledge of Making the hydropower industry respect Indigenous rights Ak Kutan FM, a community-based radio station in Blue Creek Radio Kipa is one of the few radios that was able to secure a radio Building capacity of radio staff.

Jump to navigation. The most common use of MURS channels is for short-distance, two-way communications using small, portable hand-held radios that function similar to walkie-talkies. There are five MURS channels and the channels are either The channel frequencies and bandwidth are:.

Two-Way Radios & Police Radios

Radio , sound communication by radio wave s, usually through the transmission of music , news, and other types of programs from single broadcast stations to multitudes of individual listeners equipped with radio receivers. From its birth early in the 20th century, broadcast radio astonished and delighted the public by providing news and entertainment with an immediacy never before thought possible. Broadcast radio remained the most widely available electronic mass medium in the world, though its importance in modern life did not match that of television, and in the early 21st century it faced yet more competitive pressure from digital satellite - and Internet -based audio services.

Case studies

Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio sometimes with related metadata by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format , either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both. Signals can be either analog audio or digital audio. Television broadcasting also uses radio frequencies, but includes video signals.

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Сьюзан нахмурилась. - Я подумала, что АНБ его ликвидировало. - Вот. Если АНБ в состоянии вывести пять риолитовых спутников на геостационарную орбиту над Ближним Востоком, то, мне кажется, легко предположить, что у нас достаточно средств, чтобы подкупить несколько испанских полицейских.  - Его доводы звучали волне убедительно.

Мгновение спустя, как в одном из самых страшных детских кошмаров, перед ней возникло чье-то лицо. Зеленоватое, оно было похоже на призрак. Это было лицо демона, черты которого деформировали черные тени. Сьюзан отпрянула и попыталась бежать, но призрак схватил ее за руку. - Не двигайся! - приказал. На мгновение ей показалось, что на нее были устремлены горящие глаза Хейла, но прикосновение руки оказалось на удивление мягким.

Это был Стратмор.

Отключи ТРАНСТЕКСТ. Давай выбираться отсюда. Внезапно Стратмор сбросил оцепенение. - Иди за мной! - сказал .

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  1. Gardaktilar

    I will know, many thanks for the help in this question.