Factory equipment for the feed industry
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Original:Small scale Manufacture of Compound Animal Feed 7
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The process of manufacturing animal feed is a means whereby raw materials of widely ranging physical, chemical and nutritional composition can be converted into a homogenous mixture suitable for producing a desired nutritional response in the animal to which the mixture is fed.
The process is basically a physical one and chemical changes are few. It should be remembered however that some raw materials will have undergone extensive processing prior to inclusion into a mixed feed, for example, extraction of oil from oilseeds by solvent or mechanical extraction, heat treatment of soya beans or other beans to denature anti-nutritive factors, or the production of fishmeal and meat meal. These processes will not be considered here and reference should be made to Appendix 6 for further information on these subjects.
The feed manufacturing process may be considered to be made up of several unit operations which, in almost all circumstances, include the following:. Their sequence and the size and sophistication of equipment vary with the output of feed required as well as differences in manufacturer's design. For the purposes of illustration and for the development of cost models in Chapter 5, four levels of output will be considered as follows:.
A number of manufacturers supply ranges of feed milling equipment and will advise on the selection of suitable models if provided with full information on the proposed operation. This must include the proposed capacity of the mill, the types of raw materials available, the types of livestock feed to be produced, and the characteristics of the power supply available.
The chosen site for feed production should be readily accessible to transport, as near as possible to raw material sources and to the livestock owners, free from flooding, and with suitable power and water supplies available. There are no set specifications for the layout of a feed milling operation, each being designed according to individual circumstances.
The planning of larger mills requires the services of skilled engineers and draughtsmen, but small mills can usually be assembled from modules supplied by equipment manufacturers. In recent years there has been increasing interest in the concept of 'packaged' or 'containerized' feed mills where items of machinery are assembled within a space frame and wired up to a control panel at the factory.
The unit is then shipped as a whole within a container. On arrival it is placed on a level concrete base, and the electricity supply connected to the control panel. In most circumstances the raw materials coming into a feed process area will have been requested by the nutritionist as being necessary to meet the nutrient requirements of the diet to be manufactured. In developing countries raw materials will normally be delivered or collected from a supplier in hessian, jute, cotton, paper, or possibly loosely woven polythene sacks.
A standard size of sack may not be used for each consignment and care should be taken to check-weigh as many bags as possible since, for many small-scale operations, a weigh bridge for weighing a lorry before or after unloading may not be available. Bags are often man-handled, although the use of a small sack truck see Figure 1 will considerably ease the burden of carrying heavy materials within a feed mill area. In some circumstances, and especially with larger feed mills, raw materials may be delivered in bulk, necessitating appropriate handling and storage facilities.
In order to ensure a continuous supply of raw materials at the mill, when some may only be seasonally available on the market, and to take advantage of price fluctuations, some form of storage will be necessary. The particular method chosen for raw material storage will depend on the local circumstances, but in areas where labour is cheap and plentiful and capital funds scarce, it is likely that storage in bags will be preferable.
Raw materials should arrive in good condition and in sacks which have not been used for the storage of fertilizer, pesticides or chemicals. Contamination by string, large pieces of metal, wood or stones which could cause extensive damage to machinery can normally be removed on a coarse metal grid fitted over the sack tipping-in point of the feed mill, and permanent magnets will normally remove any tramp ferrous metal which may enter the system, particularly before entering the grinder, mixer or pelleter.
Storage areas must be waterproof and well-ventilated, and provide protection against infestation by insects and vermin which can quickly cause substantial losses in weight. If materials are to be stored in bags they should be kept in a building having a concrete floor. The roof and walls need only to be lightly constructed provided that they are pest and waterproof.
The bags should be stacked a few inches above floor level, for example, on wooden pallets see Figure 1 , and away from walls. Raw materials may also be stored in bulk either in silos constructed from concrete or steel or in bins formed with partitions in conventional stores.
Bulk storage normally entails a greater investment in capital equipment but lower operating costs. If raw materials are to be stored in this way it is essential that the bin manufacturers are informed of the raw materials to be handled, since some raw materials which have poor flow characteristics tend to form bridges of material in the bin base thus preventing their discharge.
In general, raw materials of low bulk density have poor flow characteristics and those of high bulk density have good flow characteristics. Raw materials which have poor flow properties normally require large diameter augers for their transfer.
Raw materials will vary from country to country and from region to region and will have widely ranging bulk densities weight for a given volume. These differences in bulk density must be taken into account when determining the space required for the storage of raw materials and finished products. Appendix 4, Table XVIII lists typical bulk density values for common feed raw materials and indicates the areas required for their storage. The proper storage of raw materials and of finished feeds is not only essential to prevent physical losses, but is also an important aspect of quality control which will be discussed in more detail later.
Where the construction of stores is to be undertaken, it is recommended that advice be obtained either from relevant publications or from other appropriate sources such as the Storage Department of ODNRI. Figure 1 - Sketches of feed milling equipment. The accurate weighing of raw materials according to the formulation for a given ration is perhaps the most important unit operation involved in feed manufacture, since no amount of mechanical processing can make up for any deficiencies in nutrients which have been omitted from the mixture.
The point at which weighing occurs in the feed milling process will depend upon the design of the mill. Raw materials may be selected from store, weighed and then subjected to grinding and mixing, or materials may be pre-ground, then weighed and mixed. There are advantages and disadvantages in both approaches and their choice will depend upon the raw materials to be processed and the design considerations of machinery manufacturers. In small units, raw materials in sacks can be weighed individually on a platform scale with either a dial or lever-arm movement see Figure 1 , or if bags are known to be of accurate weight they can be counted and any excess needed for the formulation weighed on the scales.
Lever-arm scales are cheaper to purchase than dial scales, tend to be more robust, but are less convenient in use. Where possible, it is advisable that all scales be fitted with an adjustable tare, so that operators do not need to make calculations when allowing for the weights of containers into which raw materials may be tipped for weighing.
Large bin-type weighers see Figure 1 are often used for raw materials which have been pre-ground or are free flowing and discharge readily from storage bins or silos. Bin-type weighers may be mobile or stationary.
Inline weighers which measure the quantity of material flowing over a small electronic sensor and volumetric dischargers are also available.
Units which quantify raw material by volume tend to be more applicable to small feed units handling cereals of constant bulk density, and do not often find application in tropical countries where ingredients have diverse bulk-density characteristics. Designs of weighers are many and various but the above have been given to illustrate typical machines in use in feed mills.
The weighing of raw materials requires great care and inaccuracies must be kept to a minimum. It should be noted that errors in the weighing of small quantities of raw materials often have far greater influence on the growth performance of animals than errors in the weighing of large quantities of material, for example, the omission of say, 25 kg of bran from a mixture requiring kg of bran is of much less significance nutritionally than the omission of 1.
In the sequence of unit operations involved in feed milling, raw material grinding may occur before or after weighing. It is a process with high power requirements which is often noisy and dusty. The design of machine most commonly found in the feed. Inside the grinding chamber, hammers, which may be fixed rigidly to the central shaft, or more often swinging on steel pins, rotate at high speed.
The impact of the raw material on the hammers and the continual high-velocity impact of particle on particle results in material breakdown until it is small enough in size to pass through a perforated screen.
It is obvious that the smaller the screen size the more work will be required to reduce the particles to the desired size and the larger the grinder motor required. Raw materials also have different grinding properties somewhat related to their bulk density and flow characteristics. In general those of high bulk density grind more easily than fluffy, fibrous low-bulk density materials.
Grinders are most efficient when they are running at maximum capacity for a given raw material and screen size. Because of difficulties experienced in feeding certain raw materials for example, brans, cottonseed cake through a grinder, many feed manufacturers pre-blend ingredients before grinding in order that the more easily ground materials will act as carriers or flow aids to those offering resistance to grinding.
For these reasons the process may be a fire- or even an explosion risk particularly if the grinder is not protected against the entry of metal, stones, glass and other objects which can cause sparking. For safety reasons large grinders are often sited in separate brick-built stores on the outside walls of feed mills.
If ground material is to be stored in bins or sacks before further processing it is essential that the heat generated during grinding be dissipated. Cooling normally occurs as air is drawn into the grinding chamber, and during the pneumatic conveying of ground material from the grinding screen to its point of discharge, which may be through a cyclone into a bin or mixer.
Many small grinders have suction fans fitted to the grinder shaft which bring about cooling and conveying of ground material in one operation. Other grinders discharge directly into conveyors and the air drawn in during grinding is released through filter bags. Grinders may operate in a horizontal or vertical direction according to design. If ground material is conveyed pneumatically, the air and material are separated in a cyclone see Figure 2.
This simple device, which is similar to an inverted cone, causes air to swirl around its walls depositing the ground material at the base of the cone while the air exits at the top of the cyclone through a filter. It should also be noted that the desired fineness of grind will be influenced by the livestock to which the feed must be fed, or by other processes following grinding.
Raw materials for poultry should be more finely ground than for cattle or pigs and raw materials to be pelleted are usually more finely ground than the equivalent feed as meal.
Figure 2 - Action of hammer grinder. High-moisture feeds are plastic or malleable in character with few planes of impact weakness and may clog a conventional hammer mill designed for handling dry ingredients. Hammer mills and other designs of grinders may be obtained for handling moist or wet commodities, but these would not normally be used in a conventional feed mill. General purpose hammer mills for small-scale feed mills are not designed to crush large chunks of raw materials to fine particles in a single pass operation.
Large, lumpy, hard materials such as dried cassava roots and expeller oil cakes should be pre-crushed in a cake breaker to a particle size suitable for the dimensions of the hammer mill intake throat. It is important therefore that when requesting information on grinding machinery from suppliers, full details of raw materials be provided. It is advisable to provide samples of the largest, hardest and most fibrous materials likely to be encountered.
It is the job of the mixer to produce a homogenous blend of all the raw materials desired in a formulation, such that at each feeding period each animal receives a balanced mixture of nutrients. The smaller and younger the animals to be fed, the greater is the need for good mixing. Not only are their requirements more demanding, but the daily nutrient intakes of those eating small amounts of feed will be subject to much greater variation as a result of poor mixing.
Mixing often improves feed palatability if one or more of the raw materials is unpalatable to livestock.
Limited quantities of animal feed can be very adequately mixed assuming the raw materials have been ground appropriately on a concrete pad with a shovel, in a manner similar to the dry mixing of cement and sand. Raw materials should be layered one above each other and then mixed and turned to form an adjacent heap. An efficient shovelling and mixing of the heap at least three times should produce an acceptable product with the even distribution of small quantities of vitamins and minerals.
Such a mix should be similar to a mixture obtained from a vertical mixer described later. The evenness of colour of the mixture will often give a fair indication as to the homogeneity of the mixed feed. Small concrete mixers with electric or petrol engine drives are mobile lowcost machines suitable for the manufacture of mixtures of dry ingredients or mixtures of wet feeds, for example for pigs.
Pre-ground raw materials should be mixed for a minimum of five minutes to achieve a satisfactory blend. For larger-scale feed mixing however it is advisable and probably cheaper to use one of the conventional feed mixers described below. Two designs of mixers are most commonly found in the feed industry: the vertical or fountain mixer and the horizontal or U-trough mixer.
A third less common type is the conveyor mixer.
Food Manufacturing on a Mission
Since , APEC has specialized in the design and manufacturing of ingredient automation equipment and controls for weighing, dosing, mixing, continuous blending, and coating. Our equipment and control systems weigh and control flow rates from grams to tons. We serve a variety of industries with such diverse applications as the automatic formulation of flavored drink mix, rubber products, plastics, cereal products, pet food, animal feed, brake linings, vitamin and mineral supplements, lawn patch, fertilizer, foam, and composite wood products. When your food processing equipment works at optimal speed and efficiency, every part of your plant runs better.
ABC Machinery supplied poultry and cattle feed plant adopts module design which can realize customized feed processing plant. Meanwhile, as an experienced feed pellet machine factory, we can also help you make the best business plan for setting up your own chicken feed or poultry feed factory. Just feel free to send an inquiry to get poultry feed manufacturing plant cost details. We are expert of pellet production equipment and plant.
Feed manufacturing refers to the process of producing animal feed from raw agricultural products. Fodder produced by manufacturing is formulated to meet specific animal nutrition requirements for different species of animals at different life stages. The Washington State Department of Agriculture defines feed as a mix of whole or processed grains , concentrates, and commercial feeds for all species of animals to include customer formula and labeled feeds, and pet feed. The commercial production of feed is governed by state and national laws. For example, in Texas , whole or processed grains, concentrates, and commercial feeds with the purpose of feeding wildlife and pets should be duly described in words or animation for distribution by sellers. The quality of the prepared feed ultimately depends on the quality of the material such as the grain or grass used; the raw material should be of very good quality. Commercial feed manufacturing is an industrial process, and therefore should follow HACCP procedures. Additionally, the FDA regulates pet food , which they estimate feeds over million dogs, cats, and horses in America. Similar to human foods, animal feeds must be unadulterated and wholesome, prepared under good sanitary conditions, and truthfully be labeled to provide the required information to the consumer.
Other Manufacturing Equipment
With years of experience in high-quality engineering of feed mills in numerous countries around the world, SKIOLD is a reliable partner no matter the scale of the farm or plant. Our feed mill equipment is state-of-the-art equipment for feed milling plants, with our own in-house research and development department ensuring solutions suitable for your specific needs. In SKIOLD you will find a partner with more than years of experience, which means we have the knowledge to find the best possible solution for you. SKIOLD animal feed milling equipment provides you with the option of grinding and proportioning feed for various animals such as pigs, poultry, cattle etc. We offer the whole package of equipment and accessories for the complete feed mill.
Our animal feed solutions help you produce top quality feed and to make economical use of your raw materials and energy. As a technology partner with long-lasting experience in the industry, we support you in every aspect of the production of reliable animal feed. We work closely with you to keep you one step ahead. Our solutions come in a modular design so you can customize them to match your production process.
The main components of feed mill equipment in the feed pellet plant consists of feed grinding machine, feed mixing machine, feed pellet machine, feed pellets cooling machine and feed pellets packing machine. The auxiliary feed mill equipment is conveying machine, control cabinet, storage bins, dust collector, fire protection equipment and so on. Raw material receiving Feed mills are usually equipped to receive both rail and truck delivery of grains and other ingredients.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Most Satisfying Factory Machines and Ingenious Tools ▶2
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Feed Pellet Plant
Feed Manufacturing. Wenger Feeds makes thousands of different feed formulas for poultry and swine. Given the needs and markets of a diverse customer base, we offer a variety of choices including the inclusion of supplements and medications to treat disease. To ensure the integrity and safety of our products, the production and delivery of all feeds is carefully sequenced. Sequencing involves creating an order within the manufacturing and delivery process to insure feeds with restricted ingredients are not manufactured directly before feeds for a species that may have a reaction to minute traces of medications or other ingredients from the previous load. If flushing is not possible, mill operators physically clean out equipment and transition points to remove feed residue.
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Animal feed processing
Our contract food processing services go beyond delivering the highest quality products for our customers. We have a greater mission in mind: to leverage our success as a leader in the contract food manufacturing industry in order to foster whole life transformation for our employees, plant communities, and each individual we connect with on a daily basis. That means creating jobs, promoting a culture of respect and integrity, and fostering sustainable communities both locally and globally. And, of course, it means forging customer relationships built on trust, accountability, and communication.
Cattle Feed Plant
Well it depends on the capacity you need and the feedstuff materials for making feed products. There are some auxiliary equipment needed such as conveyor. Here is a hot-selling small feed mill plant for both cattle and poultry animals.
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This Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper presents the findings of a value chain analysis of the aquafeed aquatic animal feed sub-sector for the striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus farming in Viet Nam, including a review of aquafeed regulatory framework in the country. The striped catfish pangasius production sub-sector is characterized by intensive pond production technology and high-quality production inputs. In , annual production of pangasius was 1 tonnes. The key actors in the value chain comprise input suppliers, including feed ingredients suppliers, feed manufacturers, and hatchery operators seed producers , along with fingerling and grow-out farmers, fish processors, exporters, consumers and service providers. In recent years, large-scale vertically integrated enterprises have started to emerge that operate along the entire value chain, and these now dominate many areas of production. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO provides a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. The Organization publishes authoritative publications on agriculture, fisheries, forestry and nutrition.
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